- Case Report
- Open Access
Bell’s palsy at high altitude -- an unsuspected finding
© Kumar et al. 2016
- Received: 30 September 2015
- Accepted: 24 January 2016
- Published: 12 May 2016
Bell’s palsy is a common condition seen in clinical practice. The aetiology of this condition is not clearly defined and neuroimaging is essential to exclude intracranial causes of infra-nuclear facial palsy.
We report a young soldier, who presented with Bell’s palsy and neuroimaging revealed an unsuspected finding of multiple intracranial calcifications. Detailed evaluation revealed the additional diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism due to lack of sun exposure at high altitude area.
The health care practitioners, looking after the soldiers at high altitude areas should be aware of the measures to prevent vitamin D deficiency. Intracranial calcifications are uncommon in hyperparathyroidism and Bell’s palsy.
- Bell’s palsy
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Intracranial calcification
Soldiers working at high altitude areas are prone for unique disorders like acute mountain sickness, pulmonary edema and cerebral edema. These soldiers are often not exposed to the sun light and have to apply a sunscreen to prevent the ultraviolet ray induced damage to the skin. The supply chains are not very robust leading to the dependence on packaged food for many weeks to months. The packaged foods available in our country are not fortified with vitamins and minerals. We report a young soldier who presented with a seemingly trivial problem of Bell’s palsy, but detailed evaluation revealed the presence of an additional unsuspected disorder.
His hematological and routine biochemical investigations were normal. His serum calcium (8.1 mg/dl), phosphorus (4.1 mg/dl) was normal with elevated alkaline phosphatase (185 U/L). His 25 hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD - 3.2 ng/dl) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH - 92 pg/ml) suggest the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Skeletal survey and ultrasonography abdomen were normal. He was diagnosed as a case of Bell’s palsy coexisting with SHPT and was treated with weekly vitamin D sachet (60,000 U) along with daily calcium (1,000 mg) supplements. Repeat investigations after 3 months revealed normal 25-OHD and iPTH with mild residual weakness of the facial muscles.
Bell’s palsy is an acute, unilateral, infranuclear facial palsy with no specific sex predilection. The disease has been reported in middle aged individuals residing at plains rather than at high altitude location. The disease is of unclear etiology and reactivation of the herpes simplex virus has been implicated by many researchers . There is inflammation of the nerve leading to edema and focal ischemia of the facial nerve. The risk factors include obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and hypertension. The risk factors in our patient could be hypoxia induced neural edema coupled with vitamin D deficiency. Intracranial calcification also could have contributed for the same, but the neuroimaging did not reveal any evidence of calcification near the intracranial facial nerve.
Intracranial calcifications are seen in hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathyroidism, hyperparathyroidism (especially due to renal failure), congenital infections (Toxoplasmosis), toxins (Carbon monoxide, lead), neoplasms (oligodendroglioma, craniopharyngioma, germ cell neoplasm), syndromes (Fahr’s, Cockyane) and mitochondrial cytopathies . Intracranial calcifications are seen physiologically also, in certain areas of brain like pineal gland, choroid plexus, falx, tentorium and sagittal sinus. Congenital calcifications are seen in Sturge-Weber syndrome, Tuberous sclerosis, neurofibromatosis, Cockayne and Gorlin syndromes.
SHPT leading to metastatic calcification is reported commonly in patients with chronic kidney disease . SHPT due to vitamin D deficiency leading to extensive intracranial calcification has been rarely reported . The unique features of our patient include a presentation with Bell’s palsy and SHPT due to VDD. Similar to the other published report, our patients also had very low levels of 25hydroxy vitamin D and evidence of SHPT. The pathogenesis behind the ectopic calcification is not very clear. The widely accepted theories include elevated calcium-phosphorus product, increased tissue sensitivity and individual susceptibility . The tissues express the osteoblastic phenotype and the ectopic calcification is an actively determined process rather than the passive mineral deposition. Metastatic calcification is seen in various internal organs like heart, lungs, kidney, vasculature and external genitalia including penis and scrotum. The presence of vascular calcification leading to ischemic necrosis and cutaneous gangrene is known as the calciphylaxis, which is an indicator of high mortality .
Vitamin D plays an important role in skeletal and extra skeletal health. The presence of VDD is associated with the massive calcifications of the basal ganglia, cortex and cerebellum. Reports from the mice showed presence of numerous calcium enriched laminated bodies in the basal ganglia in vitamin D receptor knockout mice . The treatment is often unsatisfactory due to the unclear pathogenesis of the condition. The management options include calcitriol and phosphate binders like sevelamer.
In conclusion, we report a case of Bell’s palsy with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The soldiers working at high altitude areas should be educated about the requirement of adequate vitamin D intake. The packaged foods should be fortified with vitamin D to improve the skeletal health of these soldiers.
“Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this Case Report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Editor-in-Chief of this journal.”
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- Hohman MH, Hadlock TA. Etiology, diagnosis, and management of facial palsy: 2000 patients at a facial nerve center. Laryngoscope. 2014;124:E283–93.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Deepak S, Jayakumar B, Shanavas N. Extensive intracranial calcification. J Assoc Physicians India. 2005;53:948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bilge I, Sadikoğlu B, Emre S, Sirin A, Tatli B. Brain calcification due to secondary hyperparathyroidism in a child with chronic renal failure. Turk J Pediatr. 2005;47:287–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ko SW, Lin JL, Yang HY, Yen TH. Massive brain calcifications associated with vitamin D deficiency. Intern Med. 2011;50:2693.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fujita T. Mechanism of intracerebral calcification in hypoparathyroidism. Clin Calcium. 2004;14:55–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nigwekar SU, Kroshinsky D, Nazarian RM, et al. Calciphylaxis: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and Treatment. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;66:133–46.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kalueff A, Loseva E, Haapasalo H, et al. Thalamic calcification in vitamin D receptor knockout mice. Neuroreport. 2006;7:717–21.View ArticleGoogle Scholar