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Table 1 Infectious diseases during military deployments and measures implemented

From: Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: challenges and opportunities for militaries

Operation Year Infectious diseases Measures implemented
American Civil War 1861 to 1865 Malaria [30] Use of Quinine
World War I 1914 to 1918 1918 Influenza [31] Improvements in respiratory hygiene and isolation
Trench Foot [32] Footwear modifications
Foot protection (grease, borated talc and camphor)
Measures to improve trench and boot drainage
Tetanus [33] Prophylactic Anti-Tetanus serum to wounded
World War II 1939 to 1945 Wound infections [34, 35] Use of Dakin’s solution for antisepsis
Use of Sulfanilamide and Penicillin
Scrub Typhus [36] Development of delousing strategies
Malaria [37] Use of Atabrine
Lymphatic Filariasis [38]  
Korean War 1950 to 1953 “Korean Haemorrhagic Fever” (Hanta virus) [39] Improvement in environmental health measures
Vietnam War 1953 to 1975 Malaria and Dengue [40] Mosquito nets and repellents, Antimalarials including Mefloquine - designed by army to counter Chloroquine resistance.
Bubonic Plague (Yersinia pestis) [41] Flea insecticide and repellents
Immunisation with plague vaccines
Protective clothing and Rat proofed dwellings
Persian Gulf War 1990 to 1991 Preparedness against Biological Warfare [42] Anthrax, Botulinum, Meningococcus vaccines and Hepatitis A immunoglobulins
Operation Restore Hope 1993 Malaria [43] Use of Mefloquine and Doxycycline
Operation Enduring 2001 to 2011 Leishmaniasis [44] Genus specific probe for diagnosis
Freedom, Operation IraqiFreedom, Operation New    Treatment modalities under investigational new drug protocols
Dawn    Better shelters and insect repellents
   Malaria [45] Use of rapid diagnostic assays and Tafenoquine
   Norovirus and Shigella [4648] Use of rapid diagnostic assays
Segregation and enforcement of hygiene
Multidrug Resistant Wound infections and Nosocomial Transmission (especially Acinetobacter baumanii) [49] Improvements in infection control practices, antibiotic restriction policies
Admission surveillance cultures of wounded soldiers and contact isolation
    Need for new antibiotics targeting resistant Gram negative bacteria