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Table 9 Summary of studies that focused on secondary amenorrhea, sex, plantar pressure assessment (of walking gait), range of tibial rotation, tibia length, and waist circumference as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Secondary amenorrhea        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 746 F No
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F No
 Knapik [81] 2010 USA Air Force Recruits BCT P 375 F No
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 553 F Yes
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 571 F No
 Rauh [186] 2006 USA Marines   P 824 F Yes
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F Yes
Sex (female)        
 Allsopp [159] 2003 UK Navy Recruits R 1287 M, 354 F Yes
 Anderson [71] 2017 USA Army Light Infantry R 4384 M, 363 F No
 Bell [27] 2000 USA Army Recruits P 861 No
 Billings [160] 2004 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 2006 Yes
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F Yes
 Bulathsinhala [49] 2017 USA Army Active duty R 1,299,332 Yes
 Burne [170] 2004 Australia Military Academy   P 122 M, 25 F Yes
 Canham-Chervak [141] 2000 USA Army Recruits BCT P 655 M, 498 F Yes
 Craig [40] 2000 USA Army Airborne Division R 242,949 aircraft exits Yes
 Darakjy [8] 2006 USA Army Active duty P 4101 M, 413 F Yes
 Fallowfield [77] 2018 UK Air Force Recruits P 990 M, 203 F Yes
 Finestone [167] 2008 Israel Army Light infantry training P 36 M, 99 F No
 Finestone [190] 2014 Israel Army Cadets P 78 M, 227 F Yes
 Gam [191] 2005 Israel n/a Recruits P 375 M, 138 F Yes
 Garnock [113] 2018 Australia Navy Recruits P 95 M, 39 F Yes
 Gemmell [192] 2002 UK Army Recruits R 11,907 M, 1483 F Yes
 George [114] 2012 USA Army Combat medics P 1230 Yes
 Havenetidis [143] 2011 Greece n/a Recruits P 253 Yes
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 No
 Itskoviz [32] 2011 Israel Army Recruits R n/a Yes
 Knapik [81] 2010 USA Air Force Recruits BCT P 1042 M, 375 F No
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 1838 M, 553 F Yes
 Knapik [83] 2013 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 805 Yes (to be male)
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F Yes
 Knapik [46] 2018 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes
 Kupferer [164] 2014 USA Air Force Trainees R 141 Yes
 Mattila [37] 2007 Finland n/a Conscripts R 133,943 M, 2044 F Yes
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F Yes
 Montain [45] 2013 USA Army Recruits BCT R 421,461 M, 90,141 F Yes
 Nye [151] 2016 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 67,525 Yes
 Owens [128] 2009 USA Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force Active duty R 19,730 Yes
 Roy [133] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 246 M, 17 F Yes
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F No
 Snedecor [193] 2000 USA Air Force Recruits R 8656 M, 5250 F Yes
 Sormaala [39] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits R 118,149 No
 Waterman [165] 2010 USA Military Academy   R 10,511 person years Yes
 Waterman [31] 2016 USA Multiple Active Duty R 5,580,875 Yes
 Yates [176] 2004 UK Navy Recruits P 84 M, 40 F Yes
Plantar pressure assessment (of walking gait)        
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite infantry soldier P 77 M No (M)
 Mahieu [148] 2006 Belgium n/a Recruits Royal Military Academy P 69 M Yes (M)
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M No (M)
 Rice [120] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 147 M Yes$ (M)
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M Yes (M)
Range of tibial rotation during running (lower)        
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M Yes (M)
Tibia length (shorter)        
 Beck [140] 2000 USA Marines   P 624 M, 693 F Yes
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite infantry soldier P 77 M Yes (M)
 Goss [194] 2006 USA Military Academy Cadets R 1100 No##
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M No (M)###
Waist circumference (higher)        
 Kupferer [164] 2014 USA Air Force Trainees R 141 No
 Nye [151] 2016 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 67,525 No
 Taanila [123] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 944 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
 Taanila [104] 2015 Finland Army Conscripts P 1411 M Yes (M)
  1. BCT basis combat training; IET initial entry training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Deployment; ##Limb length inequality; ###Leg length; $Pressure on digital V