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Table 6 Summary of studies that focused on body fat, body height, and body weight as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Body fat (higher)        
 Anderson [71] 2017 USA Army Light Infantry R 4384 M, 363 F Yes
 Havenetidis [162] 2017 Greece Army Officer recruits P 268 M Yes (M)
 Havenetidis [143] 2011 Greece n/a Recruits P 253 Yes
 Knapik [46] 2018 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes
 Kodesh [163] 2015 Israel n/a Combat Fitness Instructor Course P 158 F Yes (F)
 Krauss [168] 2017 USA Army Recruits BCT R 1900 F Yes (F)
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Sobhani [155] 2015 Iran n/a Recruits R 181 M No (M)
Body height (higher)        
 Beck [140] 2000 USA Marines   P 624 M, 693 F Yes (M), no (F)
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F No
 Cosio-Lima [54] 2013 USA Army Sergeants Major Academy R 149 No
 Davey [76] 2015 UK Marines   P 1090 M No (M)
 Fallowfield [77] 2018 UK Air Force Recruits P 990 M, 203 F Yes
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite infantry soldier P 77 M No (M)
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M No (M)
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F Yes (F)
 Knapik [47] 2012 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes
 Knapik [145] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1174 M, 898 F No
 Knapik [146] 2007 USA Army Mechanics R 518 M, 43 F No
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No
 Kodesh [163] 2015 Israel n/a Combat Fitness Instructor Course P 158 F No
 Korvala [89] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 192 Yes
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 No
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F No (F)
 Ma [147] 2016 China n/a   R 2479 No
 Mahieu [148] 2006 Belgium n/a Recruits Royal Military Academy P 69 M No (M)
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F No
 Monnier [119] 2019 Sweden Marines Training course P 48 M, 5 F Yes
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Moran [63] 2012 Israel Army Elite combat unit BCT P 74 No
 Moran [125] 2008 Israel Army Recruits P 227 F Yes (F)
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M No (M)
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M No (M)
 Parr [153] 2015 USA Army Special Operations Forces P 106 No
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 No
 Reynolds [97] 2002 USA Army Construction engineers & Combat artillery soldiers P 313 Yes (to be shorter)
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 No
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M No (M)
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No (F)
 Sharma [102] 2019 UK Army Infantry recruits P 562 M No (M)
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M No (M)
 Sillanpää [51] 2008 Finland n/a Conscripts R 128,508 M Yes (M)
 Sobhani [155] 2015 Iran n/a Recruits R 181 M No (M)
 Sormaala [39] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits R 118,149 No
 Sulsky [42] 2018 USA Army Recruits BCT R 278,045 M, 55,302 F Yes
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
 Trybulec [156] 2016 Poland Army Airborne Brigade R 162 M, 3 F No
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M No (M)
 Waterman [165] 2010 USA Military Academy   R 10,511 person years Yes
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M No (M)
Body weight (higher)        
 Beck [140] 2000 USA Marines   P 624 M, 693 F Yes (M), no (F)
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F No
 Davey [76] 2015 UK Marines   P 1090 M No (M)
 Davey [127] 2016 UK Marines   P 1082 M No (M)
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite infantry soldier P 77 M No (M)
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M Yes (M)
 Havenetidis [162] 2017 Greece Army Officer recruits P 268 M Yes (M)
 Hughes [169] 2008 Australia Special Operation Forces Active duty R 554 descents Yes
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F Yes (F)
 Knapik [47] 2012 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes (invers)
 Knapik [145] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1174 M, 898 F No
 Knapik [146] 2007 USA Army Mechanics R 518 M, 43 F Yes
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 Yes
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No (M), yes (F)
 Kodesh [163] 2015 Israel n/a Combat Fitness Instructor Course P 158 F No (F)
 Korvala [89] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 192 Yes
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F Yes (F)
 Ma [147] 2016 China n/a   R 2479 No
 Mahieu [148] 2006 Belgium n/a Recruits Royal Military Academy P 69 M No (M)
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Moran [63] 2012 Israel Army Elite combat unit BCT P 74 No
 Monnier [119] 2019 Sweden Marines Training course P 48 M, 5 F No
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M No (M)
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M No (M)
 Parr [153] 2015 USA Army Special Operations Forces P 106 No
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 No
 Reynolds [97] 2002 USA Army Construction engineers & Combat artillery soldiers P 313 Yes
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 No
 Rice [120] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 147 M Yes (M) (invers)
 Robinson [57] 2016 UK Army Recruits P 1810 Yes
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M No (M)
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M Yes (M) (invers)
 Schermann [129] 2018 Israel Army Infantry unit vs. female unit working with dogs R 7949 Yes
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No (F)
 Sharma [102] 2019 UK Army Infantry recruits P 562 M No (M)
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M No (M)
 Sillanpää [51] 2008 Finland n/a Conscripts R 128,508 M Yes (M)
 Sobhani [155] 2015 Iran n/a Recruits R 181 M No (M)
 Sormaala [39] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits R 118,149 No
 Trybulec [156] 2016 Poland Army Airborne Brigade R 162 M, 3 F No
 Waterman [165] 2010 USA Military Academy   R 10,511 person years Yes
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M No (M)
  1. BCT basis combat training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI)