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Table 4 Summary of studies that focused on age, ankle dorsiflexion, and balance as risk factors for MskI

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Age        
 Anderson [70] 2015 USA Army Light Infantry Brigade R 2101 Yes
 Anderson [71] 2017 USA Army Light Infantry R 4384 M, 363 F Yes
 Beck [140] 2000 USA Marines   P 624 M, 693 F No
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M Yes (M)
 Cameron [44] 2010 USA Multiple Active duty R 423,581 Yes
 Canham-Chervak [141] 2000 USA Army Recruits BCT P 655 M, 498 F No
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F No
 Cosio-Lima [54] 2013 USA Army Sergeants Major Academy R 149 No
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F No (F)
 Cowan [75] 2011 USA Army Recruits P 7323 Yes
 Craig [40] 2000 USA Army Airborne Division R 242,949 aircraft exists Yes (30 years +)
 Davey [76] 2015 UK Marines   P 1090 M No (M)
 Dixon [142] 2019 UK Marines Recruits P 1065 Yes (younger)
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infantry Brigade R 4236 M Yes (M)
 Grier [79] 2010 USA Multiple   R 24,177 M Yes (M)
 Havenetidis [143] 2011 Greece n/a Recruits P 253 Yes
 Henderson [144] 2000 USA Army Combat medic P 439 M, 287 F Yes
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 Yes
 Knapik [47] 2012 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes
 Knapik [145] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1174 M, 898 F Yes
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 1838 M, 553 F Yes
 Knapik [146] 2007 USA Army Mechanics R 518 M, 43 F No
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F No
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 Yes
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F Yes
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No
 Korvala [89] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 192 Yes
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 Yes
 Lappe [55] 2005 USA Army Recruits BCT R 4139 F Yes (F)
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F Yes (F)
 Lauder [90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 F No (F)
 Ma [147] 2016 China n/a   R 2479 No
 Mahieu [148] 2006 Belgium n/a Recruits Royal Military Academy P 69 M No (M)
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F Yes
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M Yes (M)
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M No (M)
 Nye [151] 2016 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 67,525 Yes
 Owens [152] 2007 USA n/a Active duty R 4451 Yes
 Owens [128] 2009 USA Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force Active duty R 19,730 Yes
 Parr [153] 2015 USA Army Special Operations Forces P 106 No
 Pihlajamäki [93] 2019 Finland n/a Full duty R 4029 M No (M)
 Rabin [154] 2014 Israel Army Recruits P 70 M No (M)
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 No
 Reynolds [97] 2002 USA Army Construction engineers & Combat artillery soldiers P 313 No
 Roos [99] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 651 M No (M)
 Roy [133] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 246 M, 17 F No
 Roy [121] 2014 USA Army Active duty R 625 F Yes (F)
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M No (M)
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M Yes (M)
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 Yes
 Sefton [137] 2016 USA Army Recruits IET P 1788 M Yes (M)
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No (F)
 Sharma [102] 2019 UK Army Infantry recruits P 562 M No (M)
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M No (M)
 Skeehan [139] 2009 USA Army, Marine, Navy Active duty# R 3367 No
 Sobhani [155] 2015 Iran n/a Recruits R 181 M No (M)
 Sormaala [39] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits R 118,149 No
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M Yes (M)
 Trybulec [156] 2016 Poland Army Airborne Brigade R 162 M, 3 F Yes
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M No (M)
 Waterman [31] 2016 USA Multiple Active Duty R 5,580,875 Yes
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 Yes
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M No (M)
Ankle dorsiflexion (limited)        
 Dixon [30] 2006 UK Marines Recruits R 20 No
 Rabin [154] 2014 Israel Army Recruits P 70 M No (M)
Balance (low)        
 Heebner [157] 2017 USA Army Special Operation Forces P 95 No
 Sell [158] 2014 USA Special Operation Forces   P 226 Yes
  1. BCT basis combat training; IET initial entry training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Deployment