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Table 1 Summary of studies that focused on alcohol intake, calcium intake, milk consumption, vegetable consumption, vegetarian diet, sleep time, and smoking as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Alcohol intake        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F No
 Chatzipapas [53] 2008 Greece n/a Active duty R 64 No
 Cosio-Lima [54] 2013 USA Army Sergeants Major Academy R 149 No
 Lappe [55] 2005 USA Army Recruits BCT R 4139 F Yes (F)
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F Yes (F)
 Robinson [57] 2016 UK Army Recruits P 1810 No
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 Yes
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
Calcium intake (low)        
 Chatzipapas [53] 2008 Greece n/a Active duty R 64 No
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M No (M)
 Moran [62] 2012 Israel Army Recruits of elite combat unit P 116 No
 Moran [63] 2012 Israel Army Elite combat unit BCT P 74 Yes
Milk consumption (low)        
 Cosman [64] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 755 M, 136 F No
 Moran [62] 2012 Israel Army Recruits of elite combat unit P 116 No
 Sanchez-Santos [65 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M Yes (M)
Vegetables consumption        
 Robinson [57] 2016 UK Army Recruits P 1810 No
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M No (M)
Vegetarian diet        
 Dash [66] 2012 India Army Recruits P 8570 Yes
Sleep time (reduced)        
 Kovcan [67] 2019 Slovenia Army Infantry, active duty R 118 M, 11 F No
 Wyss [68] 2014 Switzerland Army Recruits BCT P 1676 Yes
Smoking        
 Altarac [69] 2000 USA Army Recruits P 187 M, 915 F Yes
 Anderson [70] 2015 USA Army Light Infantry Brigade R 2101 Yes
 Anderson [71] 2017 USA Army Light Infantry R 4384 M, 363 F No
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M Yes
 Bedno [35] 2019 USA Army Recruits BCT R 238,772 Yes
 Brooks [73] 2019 USA Army Recruits BCT R 1460 M, 540 F Yes
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F Yes
 Chatzipapas [53] 2008 Greece n/a Active duty R 64 No
 Cosio-Lima [54] 2013 USA Army Sergeants Major Academy R 149 No
 Cosman [64] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 755 M, 136 F Yes
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F No
 Cowan [75] 2011 USA Army Recruits P 7323 Yes
 Davey [76] 2015 UK Marines   P 1090 M Yes
 Fallowfield [77] 2018 UK Air Force Recruits P 990 M, 203 F Yes
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M Yes (less)
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infantry brigades R 4236 M No
 Grier [79] 2010 USA Multiple   R 24,177 M Yes
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F No
 Knapik [81] 2010 USA Air Force Recruits BCT P 1042 M, 375 F Yes
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 1838 M, 553 F Yes##
 Knapik [83] 2013 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 805 No
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F Yes
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F Yes
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F Yes (M), No (F)
 Korvala [89] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 192 No
 Lappe [55] 2005 USA Army Recruits BCT R 4139 F Yes
 Kovcan [67] 2019 Slovenia Army Infantry, active duty R 118 M, 11 F Yes
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F Yes
 Lauder [90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 F No (F)
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M Yes
 Nagai [92] 2017 USA Army Airborne Div P 275 Yes
 Pihlajamäki [93] 2019 Finland n/a   R 4029 M No
 Psaila [94] 2017 Malta n/a Recruits BCT P 114 M, 13 F No
 Rappole [95] 2017 USA Army Army Brigade R 1099 Yes
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 Yes
 Reynolds [97] 2002 USA Army Construction engineers & Combat artillery soldiers P 313 No
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 Yes
 Robinson [57] 2016 UK Army Recruits P 1810 No
 Roos [99] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 651 M Yes
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M No
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M No
 Scheinowitz [101] 2017 Israel Army Recruits P 350 F No
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 No
 Sharma [102] 2019 UK Army Infantry recruits P 562 M Yes
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M Yes
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
 Taanila [104] 2015 Finland Army Conscripts P 1411 M Yes
 Trone [105] 2014 USA Marine Corp
Air Force
Army
Recruits BCT R 900 M, 597 F Yes
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M No
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
 Wunderlin [107] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 230 M Yes
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M No
  1. BCT basis combat training; n/a Not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Deployment; ##Former smoking