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Table 1 Regulation of immune checkpoint proteins carried by TEXs in tumor immunity

From: The roles of exosomal immune checkpoint proteins in tumors

Origin of exosomes Immune checkpoint proteins carried by exosomes Targeted cells Effect References
PC3, prostate cancer cell lines PD-L1 Jurkat T cells Suppress Jurkat T cells activation [51]
TRAMP-C2, human prostate cancer-like cells PD-L1 CD4+/CD8+ T cells Suppress CD4+ and CD8+ T cells activation [51]
Glioblastoma cells PD-L1 CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells Suppress T cell activation and proliferation [56]
ESCC cells PD-L1 B cells, Breg cells Inhibit the proliferation of B cells; induce an increase in B10 and PD-1high Breg cells; activate TLR4 and MAPK signaling pathways [54]
Breast cancer cells PD-L1 CTLs Promote tumor growth [55]
HNSCC cells PD-L1 CD8+ T cells Suppress T cell activation [52]
Metastatic melanoma cells PD-L1 CD8+ T cells Suppress the function of CD8+ T cells; facilitate tumor growth [57]
MEL624 cells, human melanoma cell lines PD-L1 CD8+ T cells Inhibit the proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells; reduce expression of Ki-67 and GzmB, inhibit the production of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α [57]
B16-F10 cells, mouse melanoma cell lines PD-L1 CD8+ T cells Inhibit the proliferation and cytotoxicity of mouse splenic CD8+ T cells [57]
Glioblastoma cells CTLA-4 CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, NK cells, macrophages Inhibit the immune cell function [48]
NSCLC cells TIM-3 Positively correlate with larger tumor size, advanced stages and more distant metastasis [49]
Epithelial OvCa cells ARG1 CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells Inhibit the proliferation of antigen-specific T cells; accelerate tumor progression [43]
ID8-ARG1-V5 cells ARG1 BMDCs Inhibit CD8+ and CD4+ T cells proliferation [43]
Prostate cancer cells EBAG9 CTLs Inhibit the cytotoxicity of T cells; negatively regulate tumor surveillance in host cells [39]
  1. TEXs tumor-derived exosomes, PD-L1 programmed death ligand 1, ESCC esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, Breg regulatory B cell, B10 interleukin‐10+ Bregs, CTLs cytotoxic T lymphocytes, HNSCC head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, GzmB granzyme B, IFN-γ interferon-γ, IL-2 interleukin-2, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α, CTLA-4 cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4, NK cells natural killer cells, NSCLC non-small-cell lung cancer, TIM-3 T cell immunoglobulin-3, OvCa ovarian cancer, ARG1 arginase 1, ID8-ARG1-V5 murine ID8 OvCa model overexpressed V5-tagged murine ARG1, BMDCs marrow-derived dendritic cells, EBAG9 estrogen receptor binding fragment-associated antigen 9