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Table 3 Multivariable logistic regressions predicting current PTSD, depression, AUDIT-C, global severity index, and psychiatric service utilization among veterans (N = 1666 ~ 1692) [OR, 95% CI]*

From: Mental health status in veterans residing in rural versus non-rural areas: results from the veterans’ health study

Variables PTSD Major depression AUDIT-C positive High global severity (BSI-18) Psych treatment past year
Rural residence 0.91, 0.60–1.39 1.11, 0.76–1.63 0.90, 0.72–1.14 0.71, 0.51–0.99 0.69, 0.53–0.90
Age (in years) 0.98, 0.97–1.00 0.97§, 0.96–0.98 0.96§, 0.95–0.97 1.00, 0.98–1.01 0.98§, 0.97–0.99
Female sex 2.86, 1.26–6.45 1.99, 0.96–4.10 0.46, 0.26–0.82 1.73, 0.83–3.58 2.79§, 1.62–4.80
White race 1.89, 0.64–5.60 0.76, 0.34–1.70 0.76, 0.45–1.29 2.14, 0.83–5.55 1.15, 0.62–2.12
Income over $100 K 0.99, 0.60–1.64 0.83, 0.52–1.34 1.11, 0.85–1.46 0.69, 0.45–1.06 0.85, 0.62–1.16
Multiple tours 0.55, 0.35–0.86 0.91, 0.62–1.35 0.86, 0.67–1.09 0.80, 0.57–1.13 1.03, 0.79–1.34
Combat high 2.70§, 1.73–4.20 1.90, 1.24–2.91 1.00, 0.75–1.34 1.93§, 1.34–2.77 1.98§, 1.48–2.66
Concussion history 3.42§, 2.19–5.34 2.47§, 1.64–3.72 1.01, 0.77–1.34 2.55§, 1.80–3.62 2.68§, 2.03–3.55
High stress past year 4.15§, 2.71–6.37 2.81§, 1.89–4.19 1.02, 0.76–1.37 3.55§, 2.51–5.01 2.51§, 1.89–3.34
High life trauma 2.45§, 1.60–3.74 1.31, 0.86–1.99 1.20, 0.91–1.60 2.08§, 1.46–2.96 2.03§, 1.52–2.71
Low social support 1.77, 1.13–2.79 3.30§, 2.21–4.92 1.28, 0.96–1.72 2.90§, 2.04–4.14 1.52, 1.11–2.07
Low social capital 2.11, 1.36–3.27 1.30, 0.85–1.99 0.96, 0.72–1.29 1.61, 1.12–2.33 1.78§, 1.32–2.40
  1. P < 0.05; ‡ P < 0.01; § P < 0.001; * Model N = 1666 ~ 1692 due to missing data