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Table 1 Comparison of laboratory findings between SARS-CoV-2- and bacteria-induced septic patients admitted to ICU

From: Comparison of clinical laboratory tests between bacterial sepsis and SARS-CoV-2-associated viral sepsis

Item Normal range Total (n = 67) SARS-CoV-2-induced sepsis (n = 21) Bacteria-induced sepsis (n = 46) P
Blood routine test
 White blood cell counts (× 109/L) 3.5–9.5 9.6 (6.1–15.9) 7.0 (4.7–10.9) 11.7 (6.6–17.3) 0.007
 Neutrophil counts (× 109/L) 1.8–6.3 9.0 (4.3–13.9) 5.8 (3.6–8.9) 11.1 (5.5–15.3) 0.003
 Lymphocyte counts (× 109/L) 1.1–3.2 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.6 (0.6–0.8) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.68
 Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio NA 11.0 (4.8–21.5) 9.5 (4.5–13.1) 12.2 (6.0–24.6) 0.094
 Monocyte counts (× 109/L) 0.1–0.6 0.4 (0.2–0.8) 0.4 (0.2–0.5) 0.5 (0.2–0.9) 0.311
 Platelet counts (× 109/L) 125.0–350.0 186.0 (141.0–262.0) 181.0 (148.5–237.5) 191.0 (130.0–284.8) 0.71
 Haemoglobin [g/L, mean (SD)] 130–175 113.7 (26.0) 131.5 (17.4) 105.6 (25.4) < 0.001
 Hematocrit (%) 40.0–50.0 33.8 (28.6–37.9) 37.3 (34.9–40.4) 30.8 (25.6–36.0) < 0.001
Coagulation function
 Prothrombin time (s) 10.5–13.5 13.0 (11.9–14.1) 13.4 (12.3–13.9) 12.9 (11.8–14.5) 0.665
 Activated partial thromboplastin time (s) 21.0–37.0 33.9 (29.1–40.4) 34.7 (32.5–40.2) 32.1 (29.0–41.6) 0.402
 International normalized ratio 0.8–1.3 1.1 (1.0–1.2) 1.0 (0.9–1.1) 1.1 (1.0–1.3) 0.002
 D-dimer (μg/L) 0–1.5 3.1 (1.6–8.0) 1.1 (0.7–2.8) 4.4 (2.6–9.6) < 0.001
Blood biochemistry
 Albumin, median [g/L, mean (IQR)] 40.0–55.0 30.1 (25.6–33.7) 34.6 (31.3–36.5) 26.8 (24.2–31.6) < 0.001
 Alanine aminotransferase(U/L) 9.0–50.0 38.0 (27.8–60.1) 33.5 (22.0–54.3) 43.0 (28.8–70.0) 0.241
 Aspartate aminotransferase (U/L) 15.0–40.0 48.4 (31.8–91.3) 47.0 (32.6–69.5) 48.5 (29.3–100.8) 0.567
 Total bilirubin (μmol/L) 0.21.0 15.7 (10.7–22.2) 20.7 (12.8–27.6) 15.4 (8.6–21.0) 0.025
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 57.0–111.0 77.0 (50.2–124.4) 75.1 (56.3–92.7) 77.0 (48.3–155.1) 0.727
 Blood urea nitrogen (mmol/L) 3.6–9.5 7.1 (5.4–9.6) 6.6 (5.5–8.3) 7.4 (5.3–12.8) 0.151
 Creatine kinase MB form (U/L) 0–5.0 2.0 (1.1–5.0) 0.8 (0.4–1.9) 2.8 (2.0–7.6) < 0.001
 NT-pro BNP (pg/ml) 0–125.0 1778.5 (223.8–6170.5) 133.5 (71.8–772.0) 3298.5 (473.8–7077.5) < 0.001
 Lactate dehydrogenase (U/L) 120.0–350.0 749.0 (427.0–1290.0) 693.0 (399.0–883.5) 936.5 (490.8–1535.5) 0.089
Arterial blood gas
 Sodium (mmol/L) 135.0–145.0 136.0 (132.0–141.0) 135.2 (132.5–141.6) 136.0 (131.8–141.0) 0.797
 Potassium (mmol/L) 3.5–5.0 3.6 (3.4–4.1) 3.5 (3.2–3.6) 3.8 (3.5–4.3) 0.02
 Chloride (mmol/L) 90.0–110.0 101.0 (97.8–106.0) 101.0 (98.0–106.5) 101.0 (96.8–105.3) 0.695
 PaO2 (mmHg) 83.0–108.0 81.0 (61.4–99.6) 65.3 (57.5–82.0) 86.5 (64.6–130.0) 0.02
 PaCO2 (mmHg) 35.0–48.0 33.6 (30.7–40.6) 33.3 (31.4–36.6) 34.0 (28.8–44.9) 0.72
 PaO2:FIO2 (mmHg) 400.0–500.0 162.2 (119.4–219.3) 132.9 (116.2–174.9) 181.3 (119.0–279.9) 0.07
 Glucose (mmol/L) 3.9–6.1 9.2 (6.8–13.8) 11.1 (8.3–14.9) 8.8 (5.9–13.0) 0.155
 Lactate (mmol/L) 0.5–1.6 2.1 (1.5–2.9) 2.5 (1.6–3.0) 2.0 (1.5–2.6) 0.226
Immune-related biomarkers
 Absolute T lymphocyte counts (count/μl) NA 440.0 (329.5–581.0) 329.5 (313.3–472.3) 492.0 (382.0–720.0) 0.004
 Absolute helper T lymphocyte counts (count/μl) NA 246.0 (188.0–372.0) 201.0 (156.0–264.5) 308.0 (208.0–420.0) 0.034
 Absolute cytotoxic T lymphocyte counts (count/μl) NA 152.0 (102.0–236.0) 101.0 (91.0–153.8) 180.0 (132.0–264.0) 0.003
 CD4/CD8 ratio [mean (SD)] 0.9–3.6 1.8 (0.9) 1.9 (0.9) 1.8 (0.9) 0.709
Inflammation-related biomarkers
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 0–10.0 104.7 (30.9–148.4) 119.2 (70.7–154.6) 37.2 (23.8–111.6) 0.008
 Procalcitonin (ng/ml) 0–5.0 0.5 (0.2–3.8) 0.2 (0.2–0.3) 1.4 (0.3–5.5) < 0.001
  1. Data were median (IQR) if not otherwise specified. n (%) referred to the total number of patients with available data. P values indicated differences between SARS-CoV-2-induced sepsis and bacteria-induced sepsis, in which P < 0.05 was deemed as statistical significance
  2. SD Standard deviation, BNP Brain natriuretic peptide, NA Not applicable