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Table 3 Detection of microorganisms in unaccompanied minor refugees (UMRs) by area of origin as well as by colonization, infestation and infection with multiple agents in UMRs by area of origin

From: Microbiological screenings for infection control in unaccompanied minor refugees: the German Armed Forces Medical Service’s experience

  AFG EGY ERI SOM SYR Other
Middle Eastern countries
Other
African countries
Total
UMRs from the assessed regions n = 92 n = 48 n = 20 n = 24 n = 14 n = 8 n = 12 n = 218a,b
Diarrhoea-associated E. coli or Shigella spp. (PCR) 7/80 (8.8%)
(EPEC = 4
EIEC/Shigella spp. = 1
EAEC = 2)
5/20 (25%)
(EPEC = 5)
4/14 (28.6%)
(EPEC = 2
EIEC/Shigella spp. = 1
EAEC = 1)
0/14 (0%) 2/10 (20%)
(EPEC =1
EAEC = 1)
0/8 (0%) 1/9 (11.1%)
(EAEC = 1)
19/155b (12.3%)
Other enteroinvasive bacteria (PCR) 0/78 (0%) 0/20 (0%) 1/14 (7.1%)
(Campylobacter jejuni)
0/14 (0%) 0/10 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 0/8 (0%) 1/151b (0.7%)
G. duodenalis (microscopy and PCR) 12/82 (14.6%) 1/30 (3.3%) 3/16 (18.8%) 1/21 (4.8%) 0/9 (0%) 1/7 (14.3%) 2/10 (20%) 20/175b (11.4%)
Schistosoma spp. (microscopy and PCR) 1/81 (1.2%) 0/29 (0%) 9/16 (56.3%) 1/21 (4.8%) 0/9 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 2/10 (20%) 13/173b (7.5%)
Other helminths (microscopy and PCR) 3/81 (3.7%) (Hymenolepis nana = 2, Strongyloides stercoralis = 1) 0/29 (0%) 1/16 (6.3%) (Strongyloides stercoralis = 1) 1/21 (4.8%) (Hymenolepis nana = 1) 0/10 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 0/10 (0%) 5/174b (2.9%)
Blastocystis hominis (microscopy) 38/74 (51.4%) 12/27 (44.4%) 12/16 (75%) 9/19 (47.4%) 0/6 (0%) 1/7 (14.3%) 5/11 (45.5%) 77/160b (48.1%)
Dientamoeba fragilis (microscopy) 4/74 (5.4%) 2/27 (7.4%) 1/16 (6.3%) 0/19 (0%) 0/6 (0%) 1/7 (14.3%) 1/11 (9.1%) 9/160b (5.6%)
Endolimax nana (microscopy) 3/74 (4.1%) 1/27 (3.7%) 2/16 (12.5%) 2/19 (10.5%) 0/6 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 0/11 (0%) 8/160 b (5%)
Entamoeba coli (microscopy) 4/74 (5.4%) 11/27 (40.7%) 2/16 (12.5%) 1/19 (5.3%) 0/6 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 1/11 (9.1%) 19/160b (11.9%)
Entamoeba hartmanni (microscopy) 0/74 (0%) 2/27 (7.4%) 0/16 (0%) 2/19 (10.5%) 0/6 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 1/11 (9.1%) 5/160b (3.1%)
Entamoeba spp. trophozoites / vegetative forms other than E. histolytica (microscopy) 5/74 (6.8%) 0/27 (0%) 0/16 (0%) 1/19 (5.3%) 0/6 (0%) 0/7 (0%) 1/11 (9.1%) 7/160b (4.4%)
One microorganism detected 30/92 (32.6%) 10/48 (20.8%) 1/20 (5%) 10/24 (41.7%) 3/14 (21.4%) 3/8 (37.5%) 1/12 (8.3%) 58/218b (26.6%)
Two microorganisms detected 15/92 (16.3%) 6/48 (12.5%) 4/20 (20%) 1/24 (4.2%) 0/14 (0%) 0/8 (0%) 4/12 (33.3%) 30/218b (13.8%)
Three microorganisms detected 4/92 (4.3%) 0/48 (0%) 4/20 (20%) 2/24 (8.3%) 0/14 (0%) 0/8 (0%) 1/12 (8.3%) 11/218b (5.0%)
Four microorganisms detected 4/92 (4.3%) 0/48 (0%) 3/20 (15%) 0/24 (0%) 0/14 (0%) 0/8 (0%) 0/12 (0%) 7/218b (3.2%)
Five microorganisms detected 0/92 (0%) 0/48 (0%) 1/20 (5%) 0/24 (0%) 0/14 (0%) 0/8 (0%) 0/12 (0%) 1/218b (0.5%)
Six microorganisms detected 0/92 (0%) 0/48 (0%) 0/20 (0%) 0/24 (0%) 0/14 (0%) 0/8 (0%) 1/12 (8.3%) 1/218b (0.5%)
  1. ‘Middle East’ includes IRN, IRQ, PSE and PAK; ‘Other African countries’ includes GIN, LBY, BEN, DZA, GHA, MAR, GMB; aFor one UMR, the country of origin could not be identified. Accordingly, only 218 out of 219 UMRs are mentioned in this assessment. bThe denominators vary in a parameter-dependent way because not all assessments were performed for all UMRs
  2. Not all results were available for all UMRs for technical reasons or because some UMRs denied approval to do some of the respective tests. Therefore, the denominators differ in a parameter-specific way