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Table 1 The means and standard deviations (M ± SD) for measures at sessions 1 (beginning of treatment), 5, 10, 15, and 20 (end of treatment) as well as beginning to end of treatment t-test comparisons

From: Neurotherapy for chronic headache following traumatic brain injury

Item Session 1 Session 5 Session 10 Session 15 Session 20 t (df = 8) Significance P r 2
Beginning of treatment End of treatment
BPI-HA worst pain past week 7.33 ± 1.22 4.78 ± 3.15 3.94 ± 2.83 3.28 ± 2.68 2.89 ± 2.62 5.43 0.001 0.79
BPI-HA average pain past week 4.56 ± 1.59 3.00 ± 2.83 2.56 ± 2.07 2.00 ± 2.00 1.39 ± 1.22 5.86 <0.001 0.81
PCL-M total score 48.56 ± 16.13 43.61 ± 15.02 41.50 ± 10.62 38.44 ± 12.81 33.39 ± 15.86 3.44 0.009 0.60
Cognitive clouding 0–10 NRS 7.22 ± 1.72 5.67 ± 1.12 5.22 ± 1.79 4.00 ± 1.32 3.72 ± 1.89 4.53 0.002 0.72
  1. Effect size represented in r 2, percentage of variance explained
  2. BPI-HA Brief Pain Inventory-Headache, PCL-M Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Military version, NRS numerical rating scale