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Table 2 Neuroimaging findings among TBI patients with the help of different techniques

From: Military traumatic brain injury: a challenge straddling neurology and psychiatry

Neuroimaging technologies Discoveries
CT & MRI The complex multivariate model of CT parameters is helpful to improve the accuracy of prognosis prediction [98]
  The thalamic nucleus volume increased in TBI veterans with suicidal tendencies. The same results were not seen in TBI veterans without suicidal tendencies [99]
  SWI is more suitable for detecting subtle lesions or pathological abnormalities, and is more likely to obtain positive findings [100]
fMRI The DMN is changed in patients with military mTBI. Military victims with mTBI had more functional connections between white matter and the anterior cingulate cortex [101]
  The posterior cingulate cortex and other posterior brain structures tend to show lower functional connectivity within the DMN [102]
  Patients with mTBI had significantly reduced activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (decreased blood oxygenation level dependent effects in the resting state) [103]
  Patients with a reported history of mTBI showed higher activation in the periaqueductal grey matter, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cuneus during pain anticipation [104]
DTI The radial and axial diffusion coefficients of white matter were significantly increased in TBI group [105]
  Anisotropic dispersive clusters were found in the inferior frontal white matter of mTBI patients [106]
  The prognosis of patients with severe craniocerebral injury was related to the ADC values of the whole white matter and corpus callosum [12]
MTI The MPF based on magnetization transfer effect decreased in the corticocortical subcortical tracts of patients with explosion-related TBI, and the degree of reduction was correlated with the degree of explosion exposure [37]
ASL Cerebral blood flow decreased in severe TBI and increased in patients with acute mTBI [107]
MRS Decreased metabolism of N-acetyl aspartate after concussion [108]
  In veterans, n-acetyl aspartate/creatine and N-acetyl aspartate/choline ratios were reduced [109]
  1. In the above studies, the subjects were not limited to military personnel, so the possibility of negative results in the population of military TBI patients cannot be ruled out
  2. TBI traumatic brain injury, mTBI Mild traumatic brain injury, CT computed tomography, MRI magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging, SWI susceptibility weighted imaging, DTI diffusion tensor imaging, MTI magnetization transfer imaging, ASL arterial spin labelling, MRS magnetic resonance spectroscopy, ADC apparent diffusion coefficient, DMN default mode network, MPF macromolecule proton fraction