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Table 8 Summary of studies that focused on genetic factors, late menarche, muscular strength, and physical fitness as risk factors for MSkIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Genetic factors        
 Korvala [89] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 192 Yes
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M Yes (M)
Late menarche        
 Cosman [64] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 136 F Yes
 Knapik [81] 2010 USA Air Force Recruits BCT P 375 F No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 571 F No
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F No
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No
 Trone [105] 2014 USA Marine Corp Air Force Army Recruits BCT R 597 F Yes
Muscular strength (lower)        
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F No
 Heebner [157] 2017 USA Army Special Operation Forces P 95 Yes
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 Yes
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F Yes
 Nagai [92] 2017 USA Army Airborne Div P 275 No
 Parr [153] 2015 USA Army Special Operations Forces P 106 No##
 Roy [177] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# R 593 Yes
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M Yes (M)
 Sillanpää [51] 2008 Finland n/a Conscripts R 128,508 M No (M)
 Wunderlin [107] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 230 M Yes (M)
Physical fitness (low)        
 Allsopp [159] 2003 UK Navy Recruits R 1287 M, 354 F Yes
 Anderson [70] 2015 USA Army Light Infantry Brigade R 2101 Yes
 Anderson [71] 2017 USA Army Light Infantry R 4384 M, 363 F Yes
 Beck [140] 2000 USA Marines   P 624 M, 693 F Yes
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M Yes (M)
 Bedno [35] 2019 USA Army Recruits BCT R 238,772 No (M), yes (F)
 Bell [27] 2000 USA Army Recruits P 861 Yes
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F Yes
 Brooks [73] 2019 USA Army Recruits BCT R 1460 M, 540 F Yes
 Canham-Chervak [141] 2000 USA Army Recruits BCT P 655 M, 498 F Yes
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1156 M, 746 F Yes
 Cosio-Lima [54] 2013 USA Army Sergeants Major Academy R 149 No
 Cosman [64] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 755 M, 136 F No
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F Yes (F)
 Davey [76] 2015 UK Marines   P 1090 M No (M)
 Davey [127] 2016 UK Marines   P 1082 M No (M)
 Fallowfield [77] 2018 UK Air Force Recruits P 990 M, 203 F Yes
 George [114] 2012 USA Army Combat medics P 1230 No
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infantry brigades R 4236 M Yes (M)
 Grier [178] 2011 USA Army Ordinance school students P 4255 Yes (M), no (F)
 Hall [179] 2017 UK Army Recruits R 3050 M Yes (M)
 Hauret [180] 2018 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1181 Yes (endurance)
 Heller [181] 2020 USA Army Recruits BCT R 227 F Yes (F)
 Jones [34] 2017 USA Army Recruits BCT R 143,398 M, 41,727 F Yes
 Keenan [172] 2017 USA Multiple Special Forces P 726 Yes
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F No (F)
 Knapik [81] 2010 USA Air Force Recruits BCT P 1042 M, 375 F Yes
 Knapik [145] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1174 M, 898 F Yes
 Knapik [83] 2013 USA Army Brigade combat team# P 805 No
 Knapik [182] 2003 USA Army   R 1414 M, 1166 F Yes
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F Yes
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 Yes
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F Yes
 Knapik [183] 2009 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2689 M, 1263 F Yes
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F Yes
 Kodesh [163] 2015 Israel n/a Combat Fitness Instructor Course P 158 F Yes (F) (running)
 Krauss [168] 2017 USA Army Recruits BCT R 1900 F Yes
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 No
 Kupferer [164] 2014 USA Air Force Trainees R 141 Yes
 Lisman [118] 2013 USA Marines Officer candidate training P 874 Yes (running)
 Martin [184] 2018 USA Army Light infantry division R 6865 Yes
 Mattila [37] 2007 Finland n/a Conscripts R 133,943 M, 2044 F Yes (invers)
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F Yes
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Müller-Schilling [185] 2019 Germany Army Recruits P 774 Yes
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M No (M)
 Nye [151] 2016 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 67,525 Yes
 Psaila [94] 2017 Malta n/a Recruits BCT P 114 M, 13 F Yes
 Rauh [186] 2006 USA Marines   P 824 F Yes (F)
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 Yes
 Reynolds [97] 2002 USA Army Construction engineers & Combat artillery soldiers P 313 No
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 No
 Robinson [57] 2016 UK Army Recruits P 1810 Yes (running)
 Rosendal [187] 2003 Denmark n/a Conscripts BCT P 330 Yes
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M Yes (M)
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M No (M)
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 Yes
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F No
 Sefton [137] 2016 USA Army Recruits IET P 1788 M Yes (M)
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F Yes (F)
 Sharma [102] 2019 UK Army Infantry recruits P 562 M Yes (M)
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M Yes (M)
 Sillanpää [51] 2008 Finland n/a Conscripts R 128,508 M No (M)
 Sormaala [39] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits R 118,149 No
 Taanila [123] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 944 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M Yes (M)
 Trone [105] 2014 USA Marine Corp
Air Force
Army
Recruits BCT R 900 M, 597 F Yes
 Välimäki [188] 2005 Finland Army Conscripts P 179 Yes
 Waterman [165] 2010 USA Military Academy   R 10,511 person years Yes (invers)
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
 Wyss [68] 2014 Switzerland Army Recruits BCT P 1676 No
 Wyss [189] 2012 Switzerland Army   R 459 Yes
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M No (M)
  1. BCT basis combat training; IET initial entry training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Deployment; ##Shoulder, knee, low back