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Table 7 Summary of studies that focused on bone (mineral) density, external rotation of the hip, flexibility, and foot type as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Bone (mineral) density (low)        
 Cosman [64] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 755 M, 136 F Yes
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F No
 Lauder[90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 F Yes (F)
External rotation of the hip (higher)        
 Burne [170] 2004 Australia Military Academy   P 122 M, 25 F No
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite infantry soldier P 77 M No (M)
 Garnock [113] 2018 Australia Navy Recruits P 95 M, 39 F Yes
 Rauh [171] 2010 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 748 F Yes (F)
 Sobhani [155] 2015 Iran n/a Recruits R 181 M Yes (M)
Flexibility (lower)        
 Heebner [157] 2017 USA Army Special Operations Forces P 95 No
 Keenan [172] 2017 USA Multiple Special Forces P 726 Yes#,##
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F No#
 Nagai [92] 2017 USA Army Airborne Div P 275 No###
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M No (M)
Foot type        
 Esterman [173] 2005 Australia Air Force Recruits P 230 No
 Hetsroni [174] 2006 Israel Army Recruits P 405 M No&
 Levy [175] 2006 USA n/a Military Academy Cadets R 431 M, 73 F Yes&&
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M Yes (M)&&&,&&&&
 Psaila [94] 2017 Malta n/a Recruits BCT P 114 M, 13 F No
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 Yes&&&&&
 Rice [120] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 147 M Yes (M)&&&
 Yates [176] 2004 UK Navy Recruits P 84 M, 40 F Yes
  1. BCT basis combat training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Hamstring-flexibility; ##Gastrocnemius-soleus flexibility; ###Several muscle groups (shoulder, trunk rotation, hip extension, active knee extension, ankle dorsiflexion, ankle plantarflexion); &For any type for foot pronation; &&Pes planus; &&&Width malleolar; &&&&Arch index, corrected calf girth; &&&&&Forefoot varus