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Table 5 Summary of studies that focused on BMI (in general), obesity, being overweight, and being underweight as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
BMI (in general)        
 Allsopp [159] 2003 UK Navy Recruits R 1287 M, 354 F Yes
 Beck [140] 2000 USA Marines   P 624 M, 693 F Yes (M), no (F)
 Bedno [35] 2019 USA Army Recruits BCT R 238,772 Yes (M), no (F)
 Billings [160] 2004 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 2006 Yes
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F Yes
 Burgi [126] 2011 USA Navy Recruits P 2300 F No (F)
 Cosio-Lima [54] 2013 USA Army Sergeants Major Academy R 149 No
 Davey [76] 2015 UK Marines   P 1090 M No (M)
 Garnock [113] 2018 Australia Navy Recruits P 95 M, 39 F No
 George [114] 2012 USA Army Combat medics P 1230 Yes
 Havenetidis [162] 2017 Greece Army Officer recruits P 268 M No (M)
 Havenetidis [143] 2011 Greece n/a Recruits P 253 No
 Jones [34] 2017 USA Army Recruits BCT R 143,398 M, 41,727 F Yes
 Knapik [145] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1174 M, 898 F No
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 1838 M, 553 F Yes
 Knapik [146] 2007 USA Army Mechanics R 518 M, 43 F Yes (M)
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F No
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No
 Kodesh [163] 2015 Israel n/a Combat Fitness Instructor Course P 158 F No
 Korvala [89] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 192 Yes
 Kupferer [164] 2014 USA Air Force Trainees R 141 No
 Lauder [90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 F Yes (F)
 Mahieu [148] 2006 Belgium n/a Recruits Royal Military Academy P 69 M No
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F No
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 No
 Moran [63] 2012 Israel Army Elite combat unit BCT P 74 No (M)
 Moran [125] 2008 Israel Army Recruits P 227 F Yes (F)
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M No (M)
 Nunns [150] 2016 UK Marines Recruits P 160 M Yes (M)
 Nye [151] 2016 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 67,525 No
 Parr [153] 2015 USA Army Special Operations Forces P 106 No
 Pihlajamäki [93] 2019 Finland n/a Full duty R 4029 M No (M)
 Psaila [94] 2017 Malta n/a Recruits BCT P 114 M, 13 F No
 Rabin [154] 2014 Israel Army Recruits P 70 M No (M)
 Rappole [95] 2017 USA Army Army Brigade R 1099 Yes
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 No
 Rice [120] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 147 M Yes (M, especially lower BMI)
 Roos [99] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 651 M No (M)
 Ruohola [100] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits P 756 M No (M)
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F No
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No (F)
 Sharma [102] 2019 UK Army Infantry recruits P 562 M No (M)
 Sharma [103] 2011 UK Army Infantry recruits P 468 M No (M)
 Sillanpää [51] 2008 Finland n/a Conscripts R 128,508 M No (M)
 Sormaala [39] 2006 Finland n/a Recruits R 118,149 No
 Waterman [165] 2010 USA Military Academy   R 10,511 person years Yes (M), no (F)
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
 Wunderlin [107] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 230 M Yes (M)
 Wyss [68] 2014 Switzerland Army Recruits BCT P 1676 NO
Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)        
 Anderson [70] 2015 USA Army Light Infantry Brigade R 2101 Yes
 AMSA [43] 2000 USA Army Active duty R 387,536 Yes
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M Yes (M)
 Billings [160] 2004 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 2006 Yes
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F Yes
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F No (F)
 Cowan [75] 2011 USA Army Recruits P 7323 Yes
 Gundlach [166] 2012 Germany Army Active duty P 410 Yes
 Henderson [144] 2000 USA Army Combat medic P 439 M, 287 F Yes
 Hruby [48] 2016 USA Army   R 736,608 Yes
 Jones [34] 2017 USA Army Recruits BCT R 143,398 M, 41,727 F Yes
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 Yes
 Ma [147] 2016 China n/a   R 2479 Yes
 Packnett [41] 2011 USA Army Recruits BCT R 217,468 M, 47,813 F Yes
 Rappole [95] 2017 USA Army Army Brigade R 1099 Yes
 Taanila [123] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 944 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M Yes (M)
Overweight (BMI ≥ 25 and < 30 kg/m2)        
 Anderson [70] 2015 USA Army Light Infantry Brigade R 2101 Yes
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M No (M)
 Billings [160] 2004 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 2006 Yes
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1156 M, 746 F Yes
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F No (F)
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infantry Brigade R 4236 M Yes (M)
 Gundlach [166] 2012 Germany Army Active duty P 410 Yes
 Henderson [144] 2000 USA Army Combat medic P 439 M, 287 F Yes
 Hruby [48] 2016 USA Army   R 736,608 Yes
 Knapik [47] 2012 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes (M), no (F)
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 No
 Ma [147] 2016 China n/a   R 2479 Yes
 Mattila [37] 2007 Finland n/a Conscripts R 133,943 M, 2044 F Yes
 Rappole [95] 2017 USA Army Army Brigade R 1099 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [123] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 944 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2)        
 AMSA [43] 2000 USA Army Active duty R 387,536 Yes
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M Yes (M)
 Billings [160] 2004 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 2006 Yes
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F No (F)
 Finestone [167] 2008 Israel Army Light Infantry training P 36 M, 99 F Yes
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infantry brigade R 4236 M Yes (M)
 Hruby [48] 2016 USA Army   R 736,608 Yes
 Jones [34] 2017 USA Army Recruits BCT R 143,398 M, 41,727 F Yes
 Knapik [47] 2012 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 No
 Packnett [41] 2011 USA Army Recruits BCT R 217,468 M, 47,813 F Yes
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 Yes
 Taanila [104] 2015 Finland Army Conscripts P 1411 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M Yes (M)
  1. BMI body mass index; BCT basis combat training; IET initial entry training; n/a not available; R Retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI)