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Table 3 Summary of studies that focused on branch, length of service, load carriage, MOS, previous deployment, and status (active vs. reserve) as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Branch        
 Cameron [44] 2010 USA Multiple Active duty R 423,581 Yes
 Owens [128] 2009 USA Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force Active duty R 19,730 Yes
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M Yes (M)
Length of service        
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 Yes
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 Yes
 Kuikka [36] 2013 Finland Army Conscripts R 128,584 Yes
 Mattila [38] 2007 Finland Army Conscripts P 149,750 M, 2345 F No
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 No
 Schermann [129] 2018 Israel Army Infantry unit vs. female unit working with dogs## R 7949 Yes
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F Yes
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
Load carriage        
 Constantini [130] 2010 Israel Army Border Police Infantry P 1423 F Yes (F)
 Knapik [83] 2013 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 805 Yes
 Konitzer [131] 2008 USA n/a Active duty# R 863 Yes
 Rappole [132] 2018 USA Army Active duty R 368 F No (F)
 Roy [133] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 246 M, 17 F Yes
 Roy [134] 2015 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# R 536 M, 57 F Yes
MOS        
 Anderson [71] 2017 USA Army Light Infantry R 4384 M, 363 F No
 Darakjy [8] 2006 USA Army Active duty P 4101 M, 413 F Yes
 Roy [135] 2011 USA Army Brigade Combat Team P 3066 patient encounters Yes
 Schermann [129] 2018 Israel Army Infantry unit vs. female unit working with dogs R 7949 Yes
 Schwartz [136] 2018 Israel Army Combat units R 19,791 M Yes (M)
 Sefton [137] 2016 USA Army Recruits IET P 1788 M Yes (M)
 Sharma [138] 2017 UK Army Recruits P 5708 Yes
Previous deployment        
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 Yes
 Konitzer [131] 2008 USA n/a Active duty# R 863 Yes
 Roy [121] 2014 USA Army Active duty R 625 F Yes (F)
 Skeehan [139] 2009 USA Army, Marine, Navy Active duty# R 3367 No
Status (active vs. reserve)        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 f No (M)
Yes (F)
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F Yes (invers)
 Skeehan [139] 2009 USA Army, Marine, Navy Active duty# R 3367 Yes
  1. BCT basis combat training; IET initial entry training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) Risk factor only for females; MOS Military occupational specialty
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Deployment; ##LOS examined in month of service