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Table 2 Summary of studies that focused on current illness, prior pregnancy, prescription of contraceptives, prescription of NSAIDs, previous MSkIs, serum iron/serum ferritin, and vitamin D status as risk factors for MSkIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Current illness        
 Grier [79] 2010 USA Multiple   R 24,177 M Yes (M)
Prescription of contraceptives        
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 571 F No
 Scheinowitz [101] 2017 Israel Army Recruits P 350 F No
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No
Prescription of NSAID        
 Hughes [50] 2019 USA Army Active duty R 120,730 Yes
Previous MSkI        
 Cameron [110] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 630 M, 84 F Yes
 Cosman [64] 2013 USA Army Military Academy P 755 M, 136 F No
 Evans [111] 2005 USA Army   R 1532 Yes
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite infantry soldier P 77 M No (M)
 Garnock [113] 2018 Australia Navy Recruits P 95 M, 39 F Yes
 George [114] 2012 USA Army Combat medics P 1230 Yes
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M Yes (M) (invers)
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 Yes
 Knapik [81] 2010 USA Air Force Recruits BCT P 1042 M, 375 F No
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 1838 M, 553 F Yes (M), No (F)
 Knapik [116] 2013 USA Army Combat engineer enlisted trainees P 1633 Yes
 Knapik [83] 2013 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 805 No
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 Yes
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F No (M), Yes (F)
 Kovcan [67] 2019 Slovenia Army Infantry, active duty R 118 M, 11 F Yes
 Kucera [117] 2016 USA Army Cadets P 9811 Yes
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F No (F)
 Lisman [118] 2013 USA Marines Officer candidate training P 874 Yes
 Monnier [119] 2019 Sweden Marines Training course P 48 M, 5 F Yes
 Rice [120] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 147 M Yes (M) (invers)
 Robinson [57] 2016 UK Army Recruits P 1810 Yes
 Roos [99] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 651 M Yes (M)
 Roy [121] 2014 USA Army Active duty R 625 F Yes (F)
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 Yes
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F No
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F No (F)
 Taanila [123] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 944 M Yes (M)
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M Yes (M)
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 Yes
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M Yes## (M)
Prior pregnancy        
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 920 F Yes
Serum iron/serum ferritin        
 Merkel [124] 2008 Israel Army Infantry/non-combatant (medics) P 83 M, 355 F Yes
 Moran [125] 2008 Israel Army Recruits P 227 F Yes (F)
Vitamin D status        
 Burgi [126] 2011 USA Navy Recruits P 2300 F Yes (F)
 Davey [127] 2016 UK Marines   P 1082 M Yes (M)
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M Yes (M)
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M No (M)
  1. BCT basis combat training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females; NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Deployment; ##Only for fractures