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Table 12 Summary of all factors and categorization in five scientific evidence grades (sorted alphabetically)

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model






Body fat (higher) (m)

Age (nm)

Balance (low) (m)

Alcohol intake (m)

Ankle dorsiflexion (limited) (nm)

Branch (nm)

Foot type (nm)

Current illness (nm)

Available participation time (low) (m)

Body height (higher) (nm)

Load carriage (m)

Length of service (nm)

Genetic factors (nm)

BMI in general (m)

Equipment: running shoes (m)

Military occupational specialty (nm)

Muscular strength (lower) (m)

Prescription of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (m)

Body weight (higher) (m)

Late menarche (nm)

Obesity (m)

Previous deployment (nm)

Prior pregnancy (nm)

Bone (mineral) density (low) (nm)

Prescription of contraceptive (m)

Overweight (m)

Vitamin D status (low) (m)

Range of tibial rotation during running (lower) (m)

Calcium intake (low) (m)

Status (active vs. reserve) (nm)

Participation in sports before military service (no or low) (nm)


Rank (lower) (nm)

Education (lower) (nm)

Vegetables consumption (m)

Physical fitness (low) (m)


Serum iron/serum ferritin (lower) (m)

External rotation of hip (higher) (nm)


Previous MSkI (nm)


Sleep time (reduced) (m)

Flexibility (lower) (m)


Race/ethnicity (nm)


Training program content (m)

Marital status (nm)


Season of the year (summer time) (nm)


Training site (m)

Milk consumption (low) (m)


Sex (female) (nm)


UV index (higher) (nm)

Participation rate in physical training (m)


Smoking (m)


Vegetarian diet (m)

Personal non-military training (high amounts) (m)


Underweight (m)


Waist circumference (higher) (m)

Plantar pressure assessment (of walking gait)


Unit training (high amount) (m)


Secondary amenorrhoe (m)


Tibial length (shorter) (m)

  1. m modifiable; nm non-modifiable