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Table 11 Summary of studies that focused on running shoes, participation in sports before military service, time available and participation rate in physical training, personal non-military training, unit training, training program content, and site as risk factors for MSkI

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Running shoes        
 Helton [198] 2019 USA Military Academy Cadets P 827 No
Participation in sport before military service (no or low)        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 f Yes
 Dash [66] 2012 India Army Recruits P 8570 Yes
 Finestone [112] 2011 Israel Army Elite Infantry soldier P 77 M Yes (only for ball sports)
 Garnock [113] 2018 Australia Navy Recruits P 95 M, 39 F No (running)
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F No (F)
 Knapik [82] 2013 USA Army Army military police training P 1838 M, 553 F Yes
 Knapik [116] 2013 USA Army Combat engineer enlisted trainees P 1633 Yes
 Knapik [85] 2001 USA Army Recruits P 182 M, 168 F No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F Yes (M), no (F)
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F Yes (M), no (F)
 Lappe [55] 2005 USA Army Recruits BCT R 4139 F Yes (F)
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F Yes (F)
 Lisman [118] 2013 USA Marines Officer candidate training P 874 Yes
 Monnier [119] 2019 Sweden Marines Training course P 48 M, 5 F No
 Pihlajamäki [93] 2019 Finland n/a Full duty R 4029 M Yes (M)
 Rauh [186] 2006 USA Marines   P 824 F Yes (F)
 Rosendal [187] 2003 Denmark n/a Conscripts BCT P 330 Yes
 Sanchez-Santos [65] 2017 UK Marines Recruits P 1082 M Yes (M) (invers)
 Scheinowitz [101] 2017 Israel Army Recruits P 350 F No (F)
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F No
 Taanila [104] 2015 Finland Army Conscripts P 1411 M Yes (M)
 Trone [105] 2014 USA Marine Corp
Air Force
Army
Recruits BCT R 900 M, 597 F Yes
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M Yes (M)
 Zhao [108] 2016 China Army Recruits P 1398 M Yes (M)
Time available for taking part in physical training (low)        
 Knapik [86] 2008 USA Army Paratrooper training R 1677 No
 Wyss [68] 2014 Switzerland Army Recruits BCT P 1676 Yes
Participation rate in physical training (low)        
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F Yes
 Martin [184] 2018 USA Army Light Infantry division R 6865 Yes
 Roy [133] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team# P 246 M, 17 F No
 Roy [121] 2014 USA Army Active duty R 625 F Yes (F)
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F No
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
Personal non-military training (high amounts)        
 George [114] 2012 USA Army Combat medics P 1230 No
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infantry brigade R 4236 M Yes (M) (invers)
 Lisman [118] 2013 USA Marines Officer candidate training P 874 No
 Moran [62] 2012 Israel Army Recruits of elite combat unit P 116 Yes
 Rappole [132] 2018 USA Army Active duty R 368 F Yes (F) (invers)
 Shaffer [109] 2006 USA Marines Recruits BCT R 2962 F Yes (F)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M No (M)
 Wyss [68] 2014 Switzerland Army Recruits BCT P 1676 Yes
Unit training (high amounts)        
 Grier [78] 2017 USA Army Infatery brigades R 4236 M Yes (M)
 Knapik [199] 2011 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2072 Yes
 Lauder [90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 (F) Yes (F)
 Lisman [118] 2013 USA Marines Officer candidate training P 874 No
 Moran [149] 2013 Israel Army Recruits P 44 Yes
 Nye [151] 2016 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 67,525 Yes
 Roos [99] 2015 Switzerland Army Recruits P 651 M Yes (M)
 Roy [177] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team R 593 No
 Schuh [200] 2017 USA Army Infantry soldiers R 831 Yes
 Scott [122] 2015 USA Army Reserve Officer Training R 165 M, 30 F Yes
 Wang [106] 2003 China n/a Military Police Forces Training R 805 M No (M)
Training program content        
 Knapik [201] 2005 USA Army Recruits BCT P 1142 M, 825 F Yes
 Kovcan [67] 2019 Slovenia Army Infantry, active duty R 118 M, 11 F No
 Rappole [132] 2018 USA Army Active duty R 368 F Yes1
 Waterman [165] 2010 USA Military Academy Students   R 10,511 person years Yes
Training site        
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F Yes
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M No (M)
 Grier [79] 2010 USA Multiple   R 24,177 M Yes (M)
 Jones [33] 2008 USA Army Ordinance school students P n/a Yes
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 No
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
  1. BCT basis combat training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. #Deployment; 1Unit resistance training was associated with higher risk of MSkI; *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI)