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Table 10 Summary of studies that focused on education, marital status, race/ethnicity, rank, season of the year, and UV index as risk factors for MskIs

From: Risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries in the military: a qualitative systematic review of the literature from the past two decades and a new prioritizing injury model

Study Publication year Country Branches Unit/training Study type n Risk factor*
Education (lower)        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F Yes
 Fallowfield [77] 2018 UK Air Force Recruits P 990 M, 203 F Yes
 George [114] 2012 USA Army Combat medics P 1230 No
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M No (M)
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F No
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No
 Munnoch [91] 2007 UK Marines   P 1115 M No (M)
 Pihlajamäki [93] 2019 Finland n/a Full duty R 4029 M No (M)
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 Yes
 Taanila [123] 2010 Finland n/a Conscripts P 944 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [59] 2012 Finland Army Conscripts P 982 M Yes (M)
 Taanila [104] 2015 Finland Army Conscripts P 1411 M No (M)
Marital status        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F No
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 Yes
 Knapik [84] 2007 USA Army Band R 159 M, 46 F No
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F Yes#
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No
 Schneider [58] 2000 USA Army Airborne Div R 1214 No
Race/ethnicity        
 Bedno [72] 2013 USA Army IET P 8456 M No (M)1
 Billings [160] 2004 USA Air Force Recruits BCT R 2006 Yes2
 Blacker [161] 2008 UK Army Recruits R 11,937 M, 1480 F Yes3
 Bulathsinhala [49] 2017 USA Army Active duty R 1,299,332 Yes4
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F No5
 Cowan [74] 2012 USA Army Trainees P 1568 F No (F)1
 Cowan [75] 2011 USA Army Recruits P 7323 No1
 Givon [61] 2000 Israel n/a   P 2306 M No (M)6
 Grier [79] 2010 USA Multiple   R 24,177 M Yes7
 Hughes [50] 2019 USA Army Active duty R 120,730 Yes8
 Kelly [80] 2000 USA Navy Recruits BCT R 86 F Yes9
 Knapik [47] 2012 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes10
 Knapik [146] 2007 USA Army Mechanics R 518 M, 43 F No11
 Knapik [46] 2018 USA Army Recruits BCT R 475,745 M, 107,906 F Yes10
 Knapik [87] 2008 USA Army Recruits BCT P 2147 M, 920 F No12
 Knapik [88] 2009 USA Marines Recruits BCT P 840 M, 571 F No13
 Lappe [55] 2005 USA Army Recruits BCT R 4139 F Yes14
 Lappe [56] 2001 USA Army Recruits BCT P 3758 F Yes15
 Lauder [90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 F No (F)16
 Montain [45] 2013 USA Army Recruits BCT R 421,461 M, 90,141 F Yes17
 Owens [152] 2007 USA n/a Active duty R 4451 Yes18
 Owens [128] 2009 USA Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force Active duty R 19,730 Yes19
 Reynolds [96] 2009 USA Army Infantry P 181 Yes20
 Reynolds [97] 2002 USA Army Construction engineers & Combat artillery soldiers P 313 Yes21
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 Yes22
 Waterman [31] 2016 USA Multiple Active Duty R 5,580,875 Yes19
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No23
Rank (lower)        
 Canham-Chervak [52] 2006 USA Army Recruits P 1156 M, 746 F No
 Craig [40] 2000 USA Army Airborne Division R 242,949 aircraft exits Yes
 Darakjy [8] 2006 USA Army Active duty P 4101 M, 413 F Yes
 Grier [79] 2010 USA Multiple   R 24,177 M No (M)
 Hill [115] 2013 USA Army Active duty R 83,323 Yes
 Lauder [90] 2000 USA Army Active duty P 230 F No (F)
 Owens [128] 2009 USA Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force Active duty R 19,730 Yes
 Reynolds [98] 2000 USA Marines Winter mountain training P 356 Yes
 Roy [133] 2012 USA Army Brigade Combat Team## P 246 M, 17 F No
 Skeehan [139] 2009 USA Army, Marine, Navy Active duty## R 3367 Yes
 Wilkinson [60] 2009 UK Army Infantry P 660 No
Season of the year (summer time)        
 Jones [33] 2008 USA Army Ordinance school students P n/a Yes$
 Knapik [195] 2002 USA Army Recruits BCT R 1543 M, 1025 F Yes$
 Mattila [196] 2006 Finland n/a   P 213,500 person years Yes$$
 Taanila [197] 2009 Finland Army Conscripts P 955 M Yes (M)$
UV index (higher)        
 Montain [45] 2013 USA Army Recruits BCT R 421,461 M, 90,141 F Yes
  1. BCT basis combat training; IET initial entry training; n/a not available; R retrospective study; P prospective study; M male; F female; (M) risk factor only for males; (F) risk factor only for females
  2. *Risk factor for musculoskeletal injuries (MSkI); #Divorced or widowed; ##Deployment; $Summer; $$Summer and autumn
  3. 1White vs. Black vs. other; 2Other > African American > Hispanic > Caucasian; 3Caucasian > others; 4Non-Hispanic white > Hispanic > American Indian/Native Alaskan > Asian > Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander > Non-Hispanic Black > others; 5White vs. Black vs. Hispanic; 6Ashkenazi vs. non-Ashkenazi; 7Black > (Native, Causasian, Asian, Hispanic, other); 8White > Black (and Asian, American Indian, other); 9Hispanic and Asian and other > white and African American; 10White, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian, other > Black; 11Caucasian vs. African American vs. other; 12White, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian, Black and others; 13White, Hispanic, Black, Other; 14Hispanic and White > Black, American Indians, Asian; 15All others races and White > Black; 16Hispanic and Asian > African-American or Caucasian; 17White, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian, others > Black; 18Black vs. White and others; 19White > others > Black; 20Caucasian > African-American, Hispanic, others; 21Caucasian was identified as a risk factor; 22White was identified as a risk factor; 23White vs. others