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Table 1 Epidemiological studies exploring the associations between periodontitis and genitourinary cancers

From: Oral microbiota in the oral-genitourinary axis: identifying periodontitis as a potential risk of genitourinary cancers

Author (year) PD criteria Cases N (M/F) Controls N (M/F) Results
Prostate cancer
Michaud et al. (2016) [23] Self-reported periodontitis according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] Periodontitis: 1945 (M: 1945) Without PD: 17,988 (M: 17,988) (1) No significant association between periodontitis and PCa risk (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.94–1.47)
(2) No significant association between tooth loss and PCa risk (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.61–1.30)
Dizdar et al. (2017) [24] CDC/AAP case definition [31] M/S periodontitis: 129 (M: 129) TNCR 2013 data M/S periodontitis had higher risk of PCa (SIR = 3.75, 95% CI 0.95–10.21)
Kim et al. (2020) [38] CDC/AAP case definition [31] CP: 60,772 (M: 60,772) Without PD: 60,468 (M: 60,468) CP significantly increased the risk of PCa (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.16–1.32)
Güven et al. (2019) [39] AAP classification [35] PD: 2151 (M: 2151) TNCR 2013 data PD significantly increased the risk of PCa (SIR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.34–2.49)
Lee et al. (2017) [40] CDC/AAP case definition [31] PD: 531 (M: 531) Without PD: 403 (M: 403) PD significantly increased the risk of PCa (HR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01–1.31)
Arora et al. (2010) [41] Self-reported PD according to tooth mobility [34] PD: 457 (M: 457) Without PD: 5515 (M: 5515) PD significantly increased the risk of PCa (HR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.04–2.07)
Hujoel et al. (2003) [42] Gingival inflammation, periodontal pockets, firmness of tooth Periodontitis: 1085 (M: 1085)
Gingivitis: 1021 (M: 1021)
Without PD: 1242 (M: 1242) Periodontitis was positively associated with PCa (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 0.76–4.34)
Hiraki et al. (2008) [43] Self-reported tooth loss Pca: 136 (M: 136) Without cancer: 5398 (M: 5398) Tooth loss was inversely associated with PCa (OR = 0.49, 95% CI  0.19–1.26)
Michaud et al. (2008) [44] Self-reported PD according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] PD: 7863 (M: 7863) Without PD: 40,512 (M: 40,512) (1) No significant association was observed between PD and advanced PCa risk (HR = 0.89, 95% CI  0.71–1.10)
(2) Tooth loss was inversely correlated with advanced PCa (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50–0.97)
Hwang et al. (2014) [45] NR PD with treatment: 19,226 (M: 19,226) PD with no treatment: 38,452 (M: 38,452) The risks of PCa were significantly higher in the PD with treatment (HR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.63–2.73)
Wen et al. (2014) [46] NR Periodontitis: 26,288 (M: 26,288) Gingivitis: 47,522 (M: 47,522) The incidence rate of PCa was not elevated in the periodontitis cohort than in the gingivitis cohort (HR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.82–1.23)
Michaud et al. (2018) [47] CDC/AAP case definition [32] Periodontitis: 2252 (M: 2252) Without Periodontitis: (M: 535) No significant association was observed between SP and PCa risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.79–1.54)
Bladder cancer
Michaud et al. (2016) [23] Self-reported periodontitis according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] Periodontitis: 1945 (M: 1945) Without PD: 17,988 (M: 17,988) (1) Periodontitis increased the risk of bladder cancer (HR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.93–2.05)
(2) Advanced periodontitis significantly increased the risk of bladder cancer (HR = 5.06, 95% CI 2.32–11.0)
Arora et al. (2010) [41] Self-reported PD according to Tooth mobility [34] PD: 908 (M: 457/F:451) Without PD: 12,592 (M: 5515/F: 7077) PD slightly increased the risk of bladder cancer (HR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.59–2.20)
Michaud et al. (2008) [44] Self-reported PD according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] PD: 7863 (M: 7863) Without PD: 40,512 (M: 40,512) PD slightly increased the risk of bladder cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI 0.96–1.43)
Wen et al. (2014) [46] NR Periodontitis: 57,591 (M: 26,288/F: 25,503) Gingivitis: 96,375 (M: 47,522/F: 45,583) The incidence rate of bladder cancer was not elevated in the periodontitis cohort than in the gingivitis cohort (HR = 0.93, 95% CI 0.70–1.22)
Oh et al. (2020) [48] Self-reported PD according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] PD: 89,170 PYs (M: 89,170 PYs) Without PD: 354,997 PYs (M: 354,997 PYs) PD increased the risk of invasive bladder cancer (HR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.98–1.46)
Nwizu et al. (2017) [49] Self-reported PD [37] PD: 17,103 (F: 17,103) Without PD: 48,766 (F: 48,766) PD slightly increased the risk of bladder cancer (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.81–1.49)
Kidney cancer
Michaud et al. (2016) [23] Self-reported periodontitis according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] Periodontitis: 1945 (M: 1945) Without PD: 17,988 (M: 17,988) No association between periodontitis and the risk of kidney cancer (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.68–1.75)
Michaud et al. (2008) [44] Self-reported PD according to bone loss and teeth number [33, 36] PD: 7863 (M: 7863) Without PD: 40,512 (M: 40,512) PD significantly increased risk of kidney cancer (HR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.12–1.97)
Wen et al. (2014) [46] NR Periodontitis: 57,591 (M: 26,288/F: 25,503) Gingivitis: 96,375 (M: 47,522/F: 45,583) The incidence rate of kidney cancer was not elevated in the periodontitis cohort than in the gingivitis cohort (HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.65–1.23)
Nwizu et al. (2017) [49] Self-reported PD [37] PD: 17,103 (F: 17,103) Without PD: 48,766 (F: 48,766) PD slightly increased the risk of kidney cancer (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 0.76–1.56)
  1. AAP American Academy of Periodontology, CDC centers for disease control, CP chronic periodontitis, CI confidence interval, F female, HR Hazard ratio, M male, M/S moderate to severe, N number, NR not reported, OR Odds ratio, PCa prostate cancer, PD periodontal disease, PYs person-years, SIR standardized incidence rates, SP severe periodontitis, TNCR Turkish National Cancer Registry