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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study patients according to the 3 subgroups with different fluid balance trajectory patterns

From: Association of fluid balance trajectories with clinical outcomes in patients with septic shock: a prospective multicenter cohort study

Characteristics All (n = 986) Fluid balance trajectory patterns P
Decreasing FB
(n = 64)
Low FB
(n = 841)
High FB
(n = 81)
Fluid overload 198 (20.1) 33 (51.6) 87 (10.3) § 78 (96.3)§ <  0.001
Age (year, \( \overline{x} \) ± s) 63.7 ± 17.5 66.3 ± 18.9 63.3 ± 17.3 65.3 ± 18.6 0.292
Sex [male, n (%)] 624 (63.3) 37 (57.8) 535 (63.6) 52 (64.2) 0.640
APACHE II (\( \overline{x} \) ± s) 22.1 ± 7.8 24.7 ± 7.4 21.6 ± 7.8§ 25.4 ± 7.4 <  0.001
SOFA [M (IQR)] 8.0 (6.0–11.0) 11.0 (8.0–13.0) 8.0 (5.0–10.0)§ 10.5 (8.0–13.0)§ <  0.001
Source of admission [n (%)] 0.006
 Emergency department 175 (17.7) 12 (18.8) 143 (17.0) 20 (24.7)  
 Medical 659 (66.8) 33 (51.6) 575 (68.4)§ 51 (63.0)§  
 Surgical 152 (15.4) 19 (29.7) 123 (14.6)§ 10 (12.3)§  
Comorbidities [n (%)]
 Respiratory disease 76 (7.7) 5 (7.8) 64 (7.6) 7 (8.6) 0.946
 Cardiovascular disease 155 (15.7) 11 (17.2) 130 (15.5) 14 (17.3) 0.862
 Hypertension 326 (33.1) 19 (29.7) 284 (33.4) 23 (28.4) 0.518
 Diabetes mellitus 192 (19.5) 9 (14.1) 167 (19.9) 16 (19.8) 0.528
 Cancer 117 (11.9) 11 (17.2) 92 (10.9) 14 (17.3) 0.096
 None 189 (19.2) 24 (37.5) 146 (17.7)§ 19 (23.5)§ <  0.001
Treatments [n (%)]
 MV 826 (83.8) 62 (96.9) 691 (82.2)§ 73 (90.1)§ 0.002
 Renal replacement therapy 229 (23.2) 12 (18.8) 178 (21.2) 39 (48.1)§ <  0.001
  1. FB fluid balance, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, APACHE II acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II, SOFA sequential organ failure assessment, MV mechanical ventilation, §Compared with decreasing FB, P <  0.05