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Table 6 The Berlin definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)

Item Mild Moderate Severe
Onset time Respiratory symptoms developed/aggravated within 1 week after clinically known damage
Hypoxemia PaO2/FiO2 201–300 mmHg, PEEP or CPAP ≥5 cmH2O PaO2/FiO2 101–200 mmHg, PEEP≥5 cmH2O PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100 mmHg, PEEP≥10 cmH2O
Causes of pulmonary edema Respiratory failure cannot be completely explained by heart failure or fluid overload. Objective assessment (such as echocardiography) is needed to eliminate the possibility of hydrostatic pulmonary edema if other risk factor is absent.
Abnormality in imaging Decreased transparence of two lungs cannot be completely explained by pleural effusion, atelectasis or nodules.
  1. PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure