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Table 6 The Berlin definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version)

ItemMildModerateSevere
Onset timeRespiratory symptoms developed/aggravated within 1 week after clinically known damage
HypoxemiaPaO2/FiO2 201–300 mmHg, PEEP or CPAP ≥5 cmH2OPaO2/FiO2 101–200 mmHg, PEEP≥5 cmH2OPaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100 mmHg, PEEP≥10 cmH2O
Causes of pulmonary edemaRespiratory failure cannot be completely explained by heart failure or fluid overload. Objective assessment (such as echocardiography) is needed to eliminate the possibility of hydrostatic pulmonary edema if other risk factor is absent.
Abnormality in imagingDecreased transparence of two lungs cannot be completely explained by pleural effusion, atelectasis or nodules.
  1. PEEP positive end-expiratory pressure, CPAP continuous positive airway pressure