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Table 1 Representative vaccine candidates and their primary characteristics

From: SARS-CoV-2: vaccines in the pandemic era

Vaccine name Developer Type Antigens Preclinical studies Clinical studies Latest updates No. of subjects (n) Age of subjects (year) Procedure Dosage GMT for NAbs
(peak-value)
Human.
Conv.
Serum
Method for NAbs
mRNA vaccine
 BNT162b1 BioNTech/Pfizer LNP-mRNA RBD trimer N.A. Phase 1/2 [20]: 45 18–55 0/21 10, 30, 100 μg 168, 267, (N.A) 94 VNT50
 BNT162b2 S-full length
(pre-fusion)
Mice, Monkeys [24]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1/2 [21]: 60 18–55 0/21 1, 10, 30, 50 μg 36, 158, 308, 578 94
  Phase 1 (b1&b2) [22, 23]: 105 18–55 0/21 b1: 10, 20, 30, 100 μg
b2: 10, 20, 30 μg
b1: 180, 203, 437, (N.A)
b2: 157, 363, 361
94
90 65–85 b1: 10, 20, 30 μg
b2: 10, 20, 30 μg
b1:33, 179, 101
b2:111, 84, 206
phase 3: NCT04368728, interim analysis of BNT162b2 released and showed 90% effectiveness [26].
mRNA-1273 Moderna LNP-mRNA S-full length
(pre-fusion)
Mice [22] Monkeys [31]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1 [27]: 45 18–55 0/28 25, 100, 250 μg 112, 343, 373 109 PRNT
  phase 1 [28]: 20 56–70 0/28 25, 100 μg 116, 402 106
20 > 71 25, 100 μg 121, 317
phase 3: NCT04470427
Viral vector vaccine
 Ad5-nCoV CanSino Ad5 S-full length Mice [38]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1 [36]: 108 18–60 1 dose 5 × 1010, 1 × 1011, 1.5 × 1011 vp 14.5, 16.2, 34 N.A. live virus neutralisation, pseudovirus neutralisation tests
  Phase 2 [37]: 508 18–60 1 dose 5 × 1010, 1 × 1011 vp 18.3, 19.5
Phase 3: NCT04526990, NCT04540419
Ad26.COV2.S Janssen Ad26 S-full length (pre-fusion) Mice [41] Monkeys [40]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1/2a [42]: 402 18–55 0/56 5 × 1010 vp; 1 × 1011 vp 214, 243 522 wild-type virus neutralization assay
  394 > 65 0/56 5 × 1010 vp; 1 × 1011 vp 196, 127
Phase 3: NCT04505722
 AZD-1222 Oxford/AstraZeneca ChAdOx1-S S-full length Mice [44, 45] Monkeys [44]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1/2 [46]: 543 18–55 1 dose 5 × 1010 vp 87.9 approx. 450 pseudotyped virus neutralisation
  534 18–55 1 dose standard dose 40
10 18–55 0/28 5 × 1010 vp 450.9
Phase 3: ISRCTN89951424, NCT04516746, NCT04540393, CTRI/2020/08/027170
 Sputnik-V Gamaleya rAd26 + rAd5 S-full length N.A. Phase 1 [48] 9 18–60 1 dose rAd26 (Fro, Lyo): 1 × 1011 vp 4.29, 3.67 32.96 Microneutralization assay
  9 18–60 1 dose rAd5 (Fro, Lyo): 1 × 1011 vp 6.3, 10.8
Phase 2 [48] 20 18–60 0/21 (rAd26)/ (rAd5): (Fro, Lyo): 1 × 1011 vp 49.25, 45.95
Phase 3: NCT04530396, NCT04564716
Recombinant protein vaccine
 NVX-CoV2373 Novavax Protein Subunit S-full length (pre-fusion) Mice [50] Monkeys [51]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1 [49]: 131 18–60 0/21 5 μg,25 μg 3906, 3305 983 Microneutralization assay
  Phase 3: 2020–004123-16 NCT04611802
EpiVacCorona Vector Peptide SARS-CoV-2 protein N.A. Phase 1: NCT04527575 14 18–60 0/21 No published results
86 18–60 0/21
Inactivated vaccine
 Inactivated vaccine Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Inactivated Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus N.A. Phase 1 [55]: 96 18–59 0/28/56 2.5, 5, 10 μg 316, 206, 297 N.A. PRNT50
  Phase 2 [55]: 224 18–59 0/14 5 μg 121
0/21 5 μg 247
Phase 3: ChiCTR2000034780, ChiCTR2000039000
 BBIBP-CorV Beijing Institute of Biological Products Inactivated Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus Mice,Monkeys [56]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1 [57]: 192 18–59 0/28 2, 4, 8 μg 87.7, 211.2, 228.7 N.A. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 neutralising assay
  60–80 0/28 2, 4, 8 μg 80.7, 131.5, 180.9
Phase 2 [57]: 448 18–59 0/14 4 μg 169.5
0/21 4 μg 282.7
0/28 4 μg 218
1 shot 8 μg 14.7
Phase 3: ChiCTR2000034780 NCT04560881
 CoronaVac Sinovac Inactivated Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus Mice, Monkeys [58]
(Challenge: Yes)
N.A. Phase 2 [59]: 600 18–59 0/14 3, 6 μg 27.6, 34.5 N.A. Cytopathogenic effect assay
  0/28 3, 6 μg between 32 and 64.
Phase 3: NCT04456595, 669/UN6.KEP/EC/2020, NCT04582344
 Inactivated vaccine Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Inactivated Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virus Mice, Monkeys [60]
(Challenge: Yes)
Phase 1 [33]: 192 18–59 0/14 50, 100, 150 EU 18, 54.5, 37.1 N.A. Infectious SARS-CoV-2 Cytopathogenic effect assay
0/28 50, 100, 150 EU 10.6, 15.4, 19.6
  Phase 1/2: NCT04470609