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Table 1 Comparison of human and mammalian coronaviruses

From: Coronaviruses and gastrointestinal diseases

Name Taxonomy Host Gastrointestinal symptoms Other system symptoms Ref.
HCoV-229E α Human/bat Rarely mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Common cold symptoms, such as headache, tiredness, rhinorrhea, sore throat, fever and cough [21, 24, 25]
HCoV-OC43 β-coronavirus lineage A Human/rat, cow Rarely mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Common cold symptoms, such as headache, tiredness, rhinorrhea, sore throat, fever and cough [27, 29]
SARS-CoV β-coronavirus lineage B Human/bat, masked civet Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Fever, muscle weakness, tiredness, headache, chill, dyspnea, pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction [32,33,34,35]
HCoV-NL63 α Human/bat Rarely mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Common cold symptoms, such as headache, tiredness, rhinorrhea, sore throat, fever and cough [22, 26]
HCoV-HKU1 β-coronavirus lineage A Human Rarely mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Common cold symptoms, such as headache, tiredness, rhinorrhea, sore throat, fever and cough [28]
MERS-CoV β-coronavirus lineage C Human/bat, camel Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Fever, muscle weakness, tiredness, headache, chill, dyspnea, pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction [36,37,38]
SARS-CoV-2 β-coronavirus lineage B Human Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea Fever, muscle weakness, tiredness, headache, chill, dyspnea, pneumonia, multiple organ dysfunction [1,2,3, 39,40,41,42,43,44,45]
PEDV α Porcine Diarrhea, vomiting [6,7,8]
TGEV α Porcine Diarrhea, vomiting [6,7,8]
SADS-CoV α Porcine/bat Acute severe diarrhea, vomiting Tiredness, rapid weight loss [6,7,8]
PDCoV δ Porcine Diarrhea, vomiting [9,10,11]
FIPV α Feline Diarrhea, vomiting Anorexia, weight loss, dehydration, consecutive fever in the early stage;
pleural effusion, ascites, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes, multiple organ dysfunction, such as in the eyes, kidneys, liver or central nervous system, in the later stage
[15, 16]
FECV α Feline Mild intestinal infection, diarrhea, vomiting [15, 16]
CCoV α Canine Diarrhea, sometimes vomiting [12, 13]
BCoV β Bovine Diarrhea, sometimes hematochezia Fever, milk production reduction, anorexia, sometimes cough and rhinorrhea [18,19,20]
  1. SARS-CoV. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus; MERS-CoV. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus; PEDV. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus; TGEV. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus; SADS-CoV. Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus; PDCoV. Porcine delta coronavirus; FIPV. Feline infectious peritonitis virus; FECV. Feline enteric coronavirus; CCoV. Canine coronavirus; BCoV. Bovine coronavirus