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Table 2 Risk factors associated with acute kidney dysfunction in traumatic rhabdomyolysis

From: Acute kidney injury in severely injured patients admitted to the intensive care unit

Variables Simple logistic regressions Multivariable logistic regressiona
OR (95%CI) P OR (95%CI) P
Demographics
 Age (for every 10 years) 1.16 (0.98–1.38) 0.083 1.30 (1.06–1.60) 0.01
Gender
 Male 0.53 (0.2–1.31) 0.167  
 Female    
Trauma mechanism
 Blast   0.334 (0.10–1.12) 0.08
 Penetrating 3.56 (1.21–10.48) 0.022   
 Blunt 4.83 (1.59–14.71) 0.006   
Severity scores
 RTS 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 0.026  
 ISS 1.04 (1.01–1.06) 0.003  
 AIS head & neck 0.89 (0.78–1.03) 0.118  
 AIS face 0.78 (0.59–1.02) 0.068  
 AIS thorax 1.30 (1.12–1.51) < 0.001 1.23 (1.04–1.46) 0.02
 AIS abdomen/pelvis 1.23 (1.06–1.43) 0.006  
 AIS extremity 1.09 (0.93–1.29) 0.293  
 AIS external 0.71 (0.50–1.00) 0.052  
 APACHE II 1.08 (1.05–1.12) < 0.01 1.05 (1.01–1.09) 0.03
Biochemical markers
 Initial lactic acid 1.23 (1.11–1.36) < 0.001 1.17 (1.03–1.33) 0.02
 Initial base deficit 1.12 (1.06–1.19) < 0.01  
 Higher CK 1.00 (0.99–1.0) 0.12  
 CK > 5000 U/L 2.35 (1.29–4.31) < 0.01 2.64 (1.31–5.33) < 0.001
Resuscitation & nephrotoxic agents
 Fluid balance, first day 1.16 (1.06–1.27) < 0.01  
 Fluid balance 72 h 1.20 (1.12–1.28) < 0.01  
 Packed red blood cells, first day 1.09 (1.02–1.17) 0.011  
 FFP transfusion 2.28 (1.31–3.98) < 0.01  
 Bicarbonate administration 2.4 (1.96–5.44) 0.035  
 Contrast administration 1.43 (0.80–2.54) 0.23  
 Contrast dose ×100 mg 1.32 (1.04–1.67) 0.02  
 Norepinephrine administration 2.42 (1.42–4.1) < 0.01  
 Vasopressin administration 1.59 (0.79–3.19) 0.19  
 Dobutamine administration 4.37 (1.74–11.0) < 0.01 3.16 (1.01–9.94) 0.049
  1. aStepwise multivariable logistic regression model with backwards elimination. Variables with P value < 0.1 were retained in the model. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, RTS Revised trauma score, ISS Injury severity score, AIS Abbreviate injury scale, CK Creatine kinase, FFP Fresh frozen plasma