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Table 1 Rural vs. non-rural residence by study predictor variables (N = 1692)a

From: Mental health status in veterans residing in rural versus non-rural areas: results from the veterans’ health study

Item Study variables [n(%)]a Residencea# OR P
Non-rural (%) Rural (%)
bAge
  18–64 [733(43.6)] 46.0 40.7 1.00 0.028
  ≥65 [949(56.4)] 54.0 59.3 1.24
Gender
  Male [1614(95.4)] 94.9 96.0 0.79 0.308
  Female [78(4.6)] 5.1 4.0 1.00
Race
  White [1620(95.7)] 94.8 96.9 1.69 0.034
  Non-White [72(4.3)] 5.2 3.1 1.00
Marital status
  Married [1315(77.7)] 74.9 81.1 1.44 0.002
  Not married [377(22.3)] 25.1 18.9 1.00
Education
  College graduate [413(24.4)] 27.5 20.7 0.69 0.001
  Non-college graduate [1279(75.6)] 72.5 79.3 1.00
Income
  ≥$100 K [373 (22.0)] 23.1 20.7 0.87 0.234
  <$100 K [1319(78.0)] 76.9 79.3 1.00
Deployed tours
  Multiple [671(39.7)] 38.7 40.9 1.10 0.364
  Single [1018(60.3)] 61.3 59.1 1.00
Stressful events past year
  Yes [361(21.3)] 23.4 18.9 0.77 0.026
  No [1331(78.7)] 76.6 81.1 1.00
Combat exposure
  High [403 (23.8)] 23.5 24.3 1.05 0.704
  Low [1289(76.2)] 76.5 75.7 1.00
Lifetime trauma
  High [351(20.7)] 20.5 21.0 1.03 0.820
  Low [1341(79.3)] 79.5 79.0 1.00
Social support
  Low [309(18.3)] 18.7 17.7 0.94 0.606
  Not low[1383(81.7)] 81.3 82.3 1.00
Social capital
  Low [338(20.0)] 23.7 15.5 0.59 < 0.001
  Not low [1354(80.0)] 76.3 84.5 1.00
  1. aBased on column percent. #Proportional difference P < 0.001, based on 99% exact confidence intervals for nonrural vs. rural. bThe age had 10 missing values. Altogether, 38 veterans had missing zipcode data and excluded from this analysis