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Table 1 Selected studies changes in circadian rhythms and adaptation of model organisms under non-24-h conditions

From: Circadian misalignment on submarines and other non-24-h environments – from research to application

Species Non-24-h periods (h) Adaptability References
Cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongates) LD 11:11, LD 15:15 Decreased growth competence and adaptability [33, 34]
Bakery mold (Neurospora crassa) Temperature cycles: T12 Conidiation rhythms ran free [35]
LD 14:14, LD 9:9, LD 6:6 Conidiation rhythms were entrained [25]
LD 6, LD 18, LD 48 Conidiation rhythms were entrained [27]
Tomato LD 6:6, LD 24:24 Significantly decreased growth [36]
Thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) LD 10:10, LD 14:14 Decreased leaf chlorophyll content; decreased photosynthetic carbon fixation; decreased vegetative growth and survival [37]
LD 10:10, LD 14:14 The mutants showed a strong positive correlation in competition under the T-cycle growth conditions [38]
Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) LD 6:6, LD 8:8, LD 24:24 Leaf movement rhythms were entrained under LD 8:8, ran free under LD 6:6 and LD 24:24 [24]
Fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) LD 21, LD 27 Reduced life span [39]
Blowfly (Phormia terraenovae) T26 T28 Decreased life spans under T26 and T28 [40]
House sparrow (Passer domesticus) LD 6:6, LD 3:3, LD 1.5:1.5 Locomotion rhythms were at least partially entrained or showed superposition [2]
Common chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) LD 22, LD 23, LD 25, LD 26 Activity rhythms were entrained to ranges from LD 23 to LD 25 [35]
Mouse (Mus musculus) Temperature cycles: T20, 28 Superposition of luciferase rhythms in lung and SCN tissues, partially entrained [41]
Nile grass rat Arvicanthis niloticus T22–26 Locomotion rhythms were entrained between T = 23 and T = 25 [42]
Rat (Rattus rattus) Feeding cycles: T20, T28 Decreased food intake and weight gain [43]
Squirrel monkey (Cebidae Saimiri) LD 9:9, LD 2:2 Core body temperature ran free, lower amplitude [26]
  1. Studies under asymmetric T-cycles are not included
  2. L Denotes “light”, D denotes “dark”, LD X:Y Denotes cycling conditions with light for X hours and dark for Y hours alternatively, SCN Suprachiasmatic nucleus