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Table 1 Proteins in the CNS extracellular matrix that contribute to the inhibition of neuroregeneration after injury

From: Neuroregeneration and plasticity: a review of the physiological mechanisms for achieving functional recovery postinjury

Inhibitory protein Function Complementary receptors
Nogo-A Remyelination inhibitor via the RhoA pathway Nogo-66 terminus: NgR1, p75, TROY and LINGO1
Amino-Nogo terminus: unknown
MAG Remyelination inhibitor via the RhoA pathway NgR2, GT1b, NgR1, p75, TROY and LINGO1
OMgp Remyelination inhibitor via the RhoA pathway NgR1
Versican (CSPG2) Important during inflammation as it interacts with inflammatory leukocytes and inflammatory cells recruiting chemokines. It also stabilizes perineuronal nets to stabilize synaptic connections. N-terminus: hyaluronan in the extracellular matrix (ECM)
C-terminus: Ligands in ECM, especially tenascin [75]
NI-35 Nonpermissive growth factor in myelin Unknown
Ephrin B3 [71] Inhibits remyelination EphA4
Semaphorin 4D (Sema 4D) [71] Inhibits remyelination PlexinB1
Semaphorin 3A (Sema 3A) [76,77,78] In scars in both PNS and CNS injuries Nrp1, Nrp2, L1cam, Nrcam [79]
  1. NgR1 Neuronal Nogo-66 receptor 1, LINGO1 Leucine rich repeat and Immunoglobin-like domain-containing protein 1, p75 neurotrophin receptor, TROY Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 19, RhoA Ras homolog family member A, MAG Myelin-associated glycoprotein, GT1b Trisialoganglioside protein, OMgp Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein, CSPG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan core protein 2 or versican, ECM extracellular matix, NI-35 A CNS myelin-associated neurite growth inhibitor, EphA4 Ephrin type-A receptor 4, Nrp1 Neuropilin 1, Nrp2 Neuropilin 2, L1cam L1 cell adhesion molecule, Nrcam Neuronal cell adhesion molecule