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Table 1 Common and potent antiviral drugs

From: The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status

StatusDrugsAction modeAnti-infective mechanismTarget diseasesRef.
ApprovedLopinavir/RitonavirProtease inhibitorsInhibiting HIV-1 protease for protein cleavage, resulting in non-infectious, immature viral particlesHIV/AIDS, SARS, MERS[83,84,85]
Approved, Investigational, Vet approvedChloroquine9-aminoquinolinIncreasing endosomal pH, immunomodulating, autophagy inhibitorsMalaria, autoimmune disease[79,80,81,82]
ExperimentalRemdesivir (GS-5734)Nucleotide analogue prodrugInterfering with virus post-entryEbola, SARS, MERS
(A wide array of RNA viruses)
[76, 88, 89]
InvestigationalNafamostatSynthetic serine protease inhibitorPrevents membrane fusion by reducing the release of cathepsin B; anticoagulant activitiesInfluenza, MERS, Ebola[90, 91]
ApprovedRibavirinSynthetic guanosine nucleosideInterfering with the synthesis of viral mRNA (a broad-spectrum activity against several RNA and DNA viruses)HCV, SARS, MERS[92,93,94]
ApprovedOseltamivirNeuraminidase inhibitorInhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme, preventing budding from the host cell, viral replication, and infectivityInfluenza viruses A[95, 96]
ApprovedPenciclovir/ AcyclovirNucleoside analogA synthetic acyclic guanine derivative, resulting in chain terminationHSV, VZV[97]
Approved, InvestigationalGanciclovirNucleoside analogPotent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirusAIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections[98]
InvestigationalFavipiravir (T-705)Nucleoside analog: Viral RNA polymerase inhibitorActing on viral genetic copying to prevent its reproduction, without affecting host cellular RNA or DNA synthesisEbola, influenza A(H1N1)[99,100,101]
Approved, Investigational, Vet approvedNitazoxanideAntiprotozoal agentModulating the survival, growth, and proliferation of a range of extracellular and intracellular protozoa, helminths, anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, virusesA wide range of viruses including human/animal coronaviruses[102,103,104]
  1. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome, MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome, HCV Hepatitis C virus, HSV Herpes simplex virus, VZV Varicella-zoster virus