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Table 1 Common and potent antiviral drugs

From: The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak – an update on the status

Status Drugs Action mode Anti-infective mechanism Target diseases Ref.
Approved Lopinavir/Ritonavir Protease inhibitors Inhibiting HIV-1 protease for protein cleavage, resulting in non-infectious, immature viral particles HIV/AIDS, SARS, MERS [83,84,85]
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved Chloroquine 9-aminoquinolin Increasing endosomal pH, immunomodulating, autophagy inhibitors Malaria, autoimmune disease [79,80,81,82]
Experimental Remdesivir (GS-5734) Nucleotide analogue prodrug Interfering with virus post-entry Ebola, SARS, MERS
(A wide array of RNA viruses)
[76, 88, 89]
Investigational Nafamostat Synthetic serine protease inhibitor Prevents membrane fusion by reducing the release of cathepsin B; anticoagulant activities Influenza, MERS, Ebola [90, 91]
Approved Ribavirin Synthetic guanosine nucleoside Interfering with the synthesis of viral mRNA (a broad-spectrum activity against several RNA and DNA viruses) HCV, SARS, MERS [92,93,94]
Approved Oseltamivir Neuraminidase inhibitor Inhibiting the activity of the viral neuraminidase enzyme, preventing budding from the host cell, viral replication, and infectivity Influenza viruses A [95, 96]
Approved Penciclovir/ Acyclovir Nucleoside analog A synthetic acyclic guanine derivative, resulting in chain termination HSV, VZV [97]
Approved, Investigational Ganciclovir Nucleoside analog Potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections [98]
Investigational Favipiravir (T-705) Nucleoside analog: Viral RNA polymerase inhibitor Acting on viral genetic copying to prevent its reproduction, without affecting host cellular RNA or DNA synthesis Ebola, influenza A(H1N1) [99,100,101]
Approved, Investigational, Vet approved Nitazoxanide Antiprotozoal agent Modulating the survival, growth, and proliferation of a range of extracellular and intracellular protozoa, helminths, anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria, viruses A wide range of viruses including human/animal coronaviruses [102,103,104]
  1. HIV Human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, SARS Severe acute respiratory syndrome, MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome, HCV Hepatitis C virus, HSV Herpes simplex virus, VZV Varicella-zoster virus