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Table 1 The basic characteristics of the included methodological quality (risk of bias) assessment tools

From: Methodological quality (risk of bias) assessment tools for primary and secondary medical studies: what are they and which is better?

No.Development OrganizationTool’s nameType of study
1The Cochrane CollaborationCochrane RoB tool and RoB 2.0 toolRandomized controlled trial
Diagnostic accuracy study
2The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)PEDro scaleRandomized controlled trial
3The Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) GroupEPOC RoB toolRandomized controlled trial
Clinical controlled trials
Controlled before-and-after study
Interrupted time series studies
4The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP)CASP checklistRandomized controlled trial
Cohort study
Case-control study
Cross-sectional study
Diagnostic test study
Clinical prediction rule
Economic evaluation
Qualitative study
Systematic review
5The National Institutes of Health (NIH)NIH quality assessment toolControlled intervention study
Cohort study
Cross-sectional study
Case-control study
Before-after (Pre-post) study with no control group
Case-series (Interventional)
Systematic review and meta-analysis
6The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI)JBI critical appraisal checklistRandomized controlled trial
Non-randomized experimental study
Cohort study
Case-control study
Cross-sectional study
Prevalence data
Case reports
Economic evaluation
Qualitative study
Text and expert opinion papers
Systematic reviews and research syntheses
7The Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)SIGN methodology checklistRandomized controlled trial
Cohort study
Case-control study
Diagnostic study
Economic evaluation
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
8The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) GroupCAMARADES toolAnimal study
9The SYstematic Review Center for Laboratory animal Experimentation (SYRCLE)SYRCLE’s RoB toolAnimal study
10Sterne JAC et al.ROBINS-I toolNon-randomised interventional study
11Slim K et al.MINORS toolNon-randomised interventional study
12The Canada Institute of Health Economics (IHE)IHE quality appraisal toolCase-series (Interventional)
13Wells GA et al.Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS)Cohort study
Case-control study
14Downes MJ et al.AXIS toolCross-sectional study
15The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)AHRQ methodology checklistCross-sectional/ Prevalence study
16Crombie ICrombie’s itemsCross-sectional study
17The Good Research for Comparative Effectiveness (GRACE) InitiativeGRACE checklistComparative effectiveness research
18Whiting PF et al.QUADAS tool and QUADAS-2 toolDiagnostic accuracy study
19The National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE)NICE methodology checklistEconomic evaluation
20The Cabinet OfficeThe Quality Framework: Cabinet Office checklistQualitative study (social research)
21Hayden JA et al.QIPS toolPrediction study (predictor finding study)
22Wolff RF et al.PROBASTPrediction study (prediction model study)
23The (COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments) initiativeCOSMIN RoB checklistPatient-reported outcome measure development
Content validity
Structural validity
Internal consistency
Cross-cultural validity/ measurement invariance
Measurement error
Criterion validity
Hypotheses testing for construct validity
24Shea BJ et al.AMSTAR and AMSTAR 2Systematic review
25The Decision Support Unit (DSU)DSU network meta-analysis (NMA) methodology checklistNetwork meta-analysis
26Whiting P et al.ROBIS toolSystematic review
27Brouwers MC et al.AGREE instrument and AGREE II instrumentClinical practice guideline
  1. AMSTAR A measurement tool to assess systematic reviews, AHRQ Agency for healthcare research and quality, AXIS Appraisal tool for cross-sectional studies, CASP Critical appraisal skills programme, CAMARADES The collaborative approach to meta-analysis and review of animal data from experimental studies, COSMIN Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments, DSU Decision support unit, EPOC the effective practice and organisation of care group, GRACE The god research for comparative effectiveness initiative, IHE Canada institute of health economics, JBI Joanna Briggs Institute, MINORS Methodological index for non-randomized studies, NOS Newcastle-Ottawa scale, NMA network meta-analysis, NIH national institutes of health, NICE National institute for clinical excellence, PEDro physiotherapy evidence database, PROBAST The prediction model risk of bias assessment tool, QUADAS Quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies, QIPS Quality in prognosis studies, RoB Risk of bias, ROBINS-I Risk of bias in non-randomised studies - of interventions, ROBIS Risk of bias in systematic review, SYRCLE Systematic review center for laboratory animal experimentation, STAIR Stroke therapy academic industry roundtable, SIGN The Scottish intercollegiate guidelines network