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Table 4 Critical appraisal of 18 studies on the prevalence of AMS

From: Sex-based differences in the prevalence of acute mountain sickness: a meta-analysis

Study and setting Subjects (n) Sample design Sampling frame Measures Unbiased assessors Response rate and refusers Prevalence rate Score and limitations
Murdoch et al. (1995) [4] Shyangboche, Asia 154 Guests
Mean 45.3 years
Guests staying at hotel Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Microbiologist
Negative screens not assessed
97.5%
Refusers not described
89% of famales
69% of males
CI given for OR
Score 5
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Ziaee et al. (2003) [9] Mount Damavand, Asia 459 Trekkers
Mean 31.9 years
Trekkers around Mount Damavand in Iran Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Pediatrist
Epidemiologist
Infectious diseases scientist
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
60.8% (279/459)
No CI given
Score 5
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Wagner et al. (2008) [10] Mount Whitney, North America 886 Hikers
Mean 37.6 years
Trekkers on Mt.Whitney Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Six interviewers
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
42.6% (337/886)
No CI given
Score 5
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Jafarian et al. (2008) [27] Tehran, Asia 90 Volunteers
Mean 28.8 years
Individuals in a mountain hotel’s clinic Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Neurologist
Anesthesiologist
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
37.8% (34/90)
CI given for subgroup
Score 5
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
Mairer et al. (2009) [22] Austrian Alps, Europe 422 Recreational hikers
Mean 37.4 years
Recreational hikers Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Medical researcher
Negative screens not assessed
90%
Refusers described
16.6% (70/422)
No CI given
Score 6
Negative screens not assessed
No CI given
Wu et al. (2010) [28] Lhasa, Asia 222 Passengers
Mean 40.4 years
Qinghai–Tibet railroad passengers Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Physiological Research Group of the Ministry of Railroad
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
27.0% (60/222)
No CI given
Score 4
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Mairer et al. (2010) [29] Alps, Europe 155 Mountaineers
Mean 34.7 years (group 1)
Mean 36.8 years (group 2)
Trekkers in both the Eastern and Western Alps Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Sport Scientists
Medical researchers
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers described
37.4% (58/155)
No CI given
Score 5
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
No CI given
Wang et al. (2010) [11] Jade Mountain, Asia 1066 Hikers
Mean 40.2 years
Trekkers visiting Paiyun Lodge on Jade Mountain Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Health workers
Medical researchers
and doctors
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
36.0% (384/1066)
No CI given
Score 5
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Modesti et al. (2011) [8] Mount Everest Base Camp, Asia 47 Volunteers
Mean 40 years
Recruited volunteers Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Medical researchers, doctors
statistician
Negative screens assessed
100%
Refusers not described
34.0% (16/47)
No CI given
Score 5
Poor sample size
Refusers not described
No CI given
Chen et al. (2012) [23] Jade Mountain, Asia 787 Random sample
Hikers
Mean 42 years
Trekkers on Jade Mountain Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Doctors, Health Scientists
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
32.8% (258/787)
No CI given
Score 5
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Maclnnis et al. (2013) [30] Gosainkunda,Asia 491 Pilgrims
Mean 36.7 years
Pilgrims travel to the Janai Purnima festival in Gosainkunda, Nepal (4380 m) Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system medical student or intern
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
34.0% (167/491)
CI given for RR
Score 6
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
Mandolesi et al. (2014) [31] Mount Rosa, Europe 60 Mountaineers
Mean 36.4 years
Recruited Mountaineers Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Medical researchers
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
40.0% (24/60)
No CI given
Score 4
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Hsu et al. (2015) [32] Jiaming Lake, Asia 91 Mountaineers
Mean 19.8 years
Mountaineers climbing to Jiaming Lake in Taiwan Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Three trained emergency physicians
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
20.9% (19/91)
No CI given
Score 4
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Ren et al.(2015) [33] Lhasa, Asia 80 Volunteers
Mean 38.4 years
Recruited volunteers Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Medical researcher
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
43.8% (35/80)
No CI given
Score 4
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
No CI given
Horiuchi et al. (2016) [34] Mount Fuji 345 Climbers
Mean 36.1 years
Climbers on Mt.Fuji Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Medical researchers
Negative screens assessed
88.9%
Refusers not described
29.5% (98/345)
No CI given
Score 5
Poor response rate
Refusers not described
No CI given
Sánchez-Mascuñano et al. (2017) [35] Spain, Europe 302 Travellers
Mean 37.7 years
Travellers in Barcelona,Spain Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Trained medical doctor
Negative screens not assessed
92.4%
Refusers described
25.8% (78/302)
95% CI 20.9–30.8
Score 7
Negative screens not assessed
Horiuchi et al. (2018) [12] Mount Fuji, Asia 1932 Climbers
Mean 37.4 years
Climbers on Mt.Fuji in Japan Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system Scientific researcher
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
31.6% (610/1932)
CI given for subgroup
Score 6
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
J. Boos et al. (2018) [36] Himalayas, Asia 80 Military servicemen
Mean 32.1 years
Dhaulagiri region of the Himalayas Lake Louise consensus AMS self assessment scoring system
AMS-C Scores
State-Trait-Anxiety-Score
Medical researchers
Negative screens not assessed
100%
Refusers not described
47.5% (38/80)
CI given for Independent predictors
Score 5
Poor sample size
Negative screens not assessed
Refusers not described
  1. AMS acute mountain sickness, CI confidence interval, RR relative risks, OR odds ratios. The critical appraisal was used to estimate the quality of the published articles, determine the validity and usefulness of prospective studies and improve the overall quality of the included articles