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Table 2 Participants’ self-reported pain and pain related functional disability (pain log & MVAS), PTSD (PCL-M) and depression symptom severity (CES-D) by group and visit number [n, mean ± SD]

From: A randomized trial comparing the Tennant Biomodulator to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and traditional Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of chronic pain in military service members

ItemVisit 1Visit 2Visit 3Visit 4Visit 5Visit 6Follow-up visit
Pain log (pre-session)
 Biomodulator (n = 34)25, 4.7 ± 1.917, 3.8 ± 2.518, 3.8 ± 2.117, 4.2 ± 2.013, 3.5 ± 1.713, 3.1 ± 1.413, 3.7 ± 2.3
 Acupuncture (n = 36)32, 4.6 ± 1.920, 3.9 ± 1.821, 3.5 ± 2.219, 2.9 ± 2.218, 3.8 ± 2.518, 3.2 ± 1.511, 3.4 ± 3.0
 TENS (n = 30)26, 4.5 ± 1.823, 3.5 ± 1.522, 3.5 ± 1.821, 3.4 ± 1.821, 2.7 ± 1.822, 2.7 ± 1.49, 3.3 ± 1.4
Pain log difference [(pre-session) – (post-session)]
 Biomodulator (n = 34)25, −1.8 ± 1.717, − 0.9 ± 2.016, − 1.4 ± 1.617, −1.9 ± 1.612, − 1.3 ± 1.413, −1.6 ± 0.9
 Acupuncture (n = 36)32, − 1.8 ± 1.720, − 1.6 ± 1.521, −1.3 ± 1.618, − 0.9 ± 1.218, −1.6 ± 1.817, − 1.2 ± 0.8
 TENS (n = 30)24, − 1.8 ± 2.322, −1.4 ± 1.122, − 1.0 ± 1.421, −1.3 ± 1.121, − 0.8 ± 0.821, − 1.0 ± 0.7
MVAS
 Biomodulator (n = 34)30, 81.2 ± 20.520, 68.9 ± 25.016, 64.1 ± 24.315, 68.4 ± 24.513, 64.8 ± 27.515, 59.1 ± 29.921, 59.1 ± 29.8
 Acupuncture (n = 36)35, 72.2 ± 25.522, 54.5 ± 25.419, 54.7 ± 25.720, 51.3 ± 30.917, 56.2 ± 33.616, 54.5 ± 28.919, 54.1 ± 33.4
 TENS (n = 30)29, 67.14 ± 18.319, 68.9 ± 25.125, 63.4 ± 26.919, 65.6 ± 27.417, 58.6 ± 25.022, 57.1 ± 25.225, 50.0 ± 22.5
PCL-M
 Biomodulator (n = 34)25, 35.2 ± 15.215, 38.6 ± 17.613, 37.2 ± 15.9
 Acupuncture (n = 36)33, 31.7 ± 18.114, 30.1 ± 17.615, 37.8 ± 21.9
 TENS (n = 30)26, 27.5 ± 10.5 16, 25.9 ± 13.118, 25.2 ± 11.8
CES-D
 Biomodulator (n = 34)22, 18.3 ± 11.315, 23.5 ± 14.714, 20.8 ± 14.6
 Acupuncture (n = 36)33, 12.1 ± 12.712, 16.7 ± 16.018, 18.4 ± 14.9
 TENS (n = 30)26, 10.7 ± 10.315, 11.2 ± 12.816, 12.6 ± 10.8
  1. -. No data; CES-D. The Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale; MVAS. Million Visual Analog Scale; PCL-M. PTSD Checklist - Military; PTSD. Post-traumatic stress disorder; TENS. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation