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Table 1 Participant characteristics (n = 100)

From: A randomized trial comparing the Tennant Biomodulator to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and traditional Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of chronic pain in military service members

 GroupF / χ2
Biomodulator (n = 34)Acupuncture (n = 36)TENS (n = 30)
Age (year, mean ± SD)49.1 ± 10.845.8 ± 10.642.2 ± 10.34.5
Females [n (%)]7 (20.6)9 (25.0)6 (20.0)0.3
Race** [n (%)]   2.5
 African American7 (20.6)11 (30.6)6 (20.0)
 European American15 (44.1)12 (33.3)16 (53.3)
 Other8 (23.5)12 (33.3)8 (26.7)
Married or in a relationship [n (%)]23 (67.6)22 (61.1)27 (90.0)6.6*
Bachelor’s degree or higher [n (%)]21 (61.7)19 (52.8)18 (60.0)0.3
Active Duty [n (%)]10 (29.4)15 (41.7)15 (50.0)0.2
Years of pain (mean ± SD)8.6 ± 6.58.6 ± 10.56.3 ± 7.04.3
Taking medication [n (%)]25 (73.5)22 (61.1)19 (63.3)0.4
  1. -. No data; *. P <  0.05; **. Race data missing for 5 participants; TENS. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation