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Table 1 Participant characteristics (n = 100)

From: A randomized trial comparing the Tennant Biomodulator to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and traditional Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of chronic pain in military service members

  Group F / χ2
Biomodulator (n = 34) Acupuncture (n = 36) TENS (n = 30)
Age (year, mean ± SD) 49.1 ± 10.8 45.8 ± 10.6 42.2 ± 10.3 4.5
Females [n (%)] 7 (20.6) 9 (25.0) 6 (20.0) 0.3
Race** [n (%)]     2.5
 African American 7 (20.6) 11 (30.6) 6 (20.0)
 European American 15 (44.1) 12 (33.3) 16 (53.3)
 Other 8 (23.5) 12 (33.3) 8 (26.7)
Married or in a relationship [n (%)] 23 (67.6) 22 (61.1) 27 (90.0) 6.6*
Bachelor’s degree or higher [n (%)] 21 (61.7) 19 (52.8) 18 (60.0) 0.3
Active Duty [n (%)] 10 (29.4) 15 (41.7) 15 (50.0) 0.2
Years of pain (mean ± SD) 8.6 ± 6.5 8.6 ± 10.5 6.3 ± 7.0 4.3
Taking medication [n (%)] 25 (73.5) 22 (61.1) 19 (63.3) 0.4
  1. -. No data; *. P <  0.05; **. Race data missing for 5 participants; TENS. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation