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Table 4 Study designs and outcomes of equine-assisted interventions in the six filtered studies

From: Equine-assisted interventions for veterans with service-related health conditions: a systematic mapping review

1st author (year) Study design Assessment describing population Outcome measures Outcome classifications and levels of significance Reported outcomes
Lanning (2013) Mixed methods BDI-II ⃟ DSM-V: depression Decreased symptoms
SF-36v2 ⃟ Other Quality of life: Physical component (i.e., physical functioning, role physical, general health); mental component (i.e., vitality, social functioning, role emotional, mental health)
—Other Quality of life: Bodily pain
Semi-structured Interview ⃟ ICF-AP: Interpersonal Increased sociability (i.e., forming new relationships), increased trust in others, more open and accepting of others
⃟ ICF-AP: Community Life Decreased isolation
⃟ ICF-BF: Temperament Increased confidence
⃟ Other Stronger
Nevins (2013) Case study CAPS BDI-II ⃟ DSM-V: Depression Decreased symptoms
MSSS ⃟ Other Increased perceived social support
PCL-C ⃟ DSM-V:PTSD Decreased symptoms
QOLI —Other Fluctuating changes in dissatisfaction, happiness, and satisfaction
RSES ⃟ Other Resiliency: increased from baseline to 4- and 12-week posttests
Duncan (2014) 1 group pre-post BELT ⃟ DSM-V:PTSD Decreased symptoms as reported by partner
⃟ ICF-BF: Temperament Increased coping self-efficacy as reported by partner
⃟ Other Partners’ feelings towards EAL program
HOLSTER ⃟ DSM-V:PTSD Decreased symptoms as reported by participant
⃟ ICF-BF: Temperament Increased coping self-efficacy as reported by participant
Aldridge (2016) Single-subject design NDI ⃟ ICF-BF: Pain Clinically significant reduction in neck pain
OLBPQ ⃟ ICF-BF: Pain Clinically significant reduction in low back pain
SDS ♦ Other Reduced disability
Ferruolo (2016) Open-ended questions ⃟ ICF-AP: Interpersonal Improved trust, improved respect for others
⃟ Other Learned about self, spiritual connection
Questionnaire ⃟ DSM-V: Depression Self-reported decreased symptoms
⃟ DSM-V: Anxiety Self-reported decreased symptoms
—Other No differences in outcomes between those attending 1 day versus 2 days of program
Lanning (2017) Mixed-methods, repeated measures PCL-M PCL-M ♦ DSM-V: PTSD Decreased symptoms
SF-36v2 ♦ Other Quality of life: mental component (i.e., vitality, social functioning, role emotional, mental health)
—Other Quality of life: physical component (i.e., physical functioning, role physical, general health)
WHODAS ⃟ ICF-AP: Interpersonal Increased understanding and communication, getting along with people, participating in society
⃟ ICF-AP: Self-care Increased self-care
⃟ Other Reduced disability
Semi-structured Interview ⃟ DSM-V: Anxiety Reduced symptoms
⃟ ICF-BF: Temperament Improved confidence, increased hope
⃟ ICF-BF: Attention Attending to the present time
⃟ ICF-AP: Interpersonal Acceptance of self and others, gratitude, increased trust, improved patience, improved ability to set boundaries
⃟ ICF-AP: Recreation Working with horses
⃟ ICF-AP: Non-remunerative employment Volunteering for program
  1. CAPS. Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, CSES Coping Self Efficacy Scale, DERS Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, DQ Demographic Questionnaire, PCL-M PTSD Checklist Military Version, BDI-II Beck Depression Inventory II, BELT Benefitting from Experiential Learning Together, HOLSTER Horses Relieving Operational Stress through Experiential Relationships, MSSS Modified Social Support Survey, NDI Neck Disability Index, OLBPQ Oswestry Low Back Pain Questionnaire, PCL-C PTSD Checklist Civilian Version, QOLI Quality of Life Inventory, RSES Response to Stressful Experiences Scale, SDS Sheehan Disability Scale, SF-36v2 SF-36v2 Quality of Life Assessment, WHODAS World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, DSM-V Diagnostic & statistical manual of mental disorders-V, ICF-AP International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF)-Activity/Participation, ICF-BF ICF-Body Functions. ♦. Statistically significant finding; ⃟. Other positive finding; —. Negative finding