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Table 4 Comparison of the effects of the different treatments on urinary and blood biomarkers in CAF personnel. [Mean ± SD]

From: Comparison of dietary intakes of Canadian Armed Forces personnel consuming field rations in acute hot, cold, and temperate conditions with standardized infantry activities

Biomarker1 Sedentary Strenuous physical activity2 P-value
Cold Hot Temperate
Urinary creatinine (mmol/d) 16 ± 4 15 ± 4 15 ± 5 15 ± 6 0.68
Urinary urea (mmol/d) 406 ± 92a 376 ± 113ab 327 ± 83b 359 ± 115ab 0.03*
Urinary sodium (mmol/d) 156 ± 56a 146 ± 68a 97 ± 52b 111 ± 68b 0.001*
Urinary potassium (mmol/d) 56 ± 16 50 ± 17 48 ± 16 45 ± 19 0.24
Urinary cortisol (nmol/L) 86 ± 43 73 ± 20 90 ± 59 90 ± 54 0.57
Urea (mmol/L) 5 ± 0.8 5 ± 1.1 5 ± 1.3 5 ± 0.9 0.17
Creatinine (μmol/L) 78 ± 12 79 ± 14 80 ± 15 79 ± 15 0.26
eGFR1 [ml/(min·1.73 m2)] 96 ± 9 95 ± 11 92 ± 13 95 ± 12 0.15
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.7 0.9 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3 1 ± 0.6 0.38
Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.3 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 0.7 0.19
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.3 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 1.3 ± 0.4 0.40
Cholesterol/HDL ratio (mmol/L) 3.5 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 1.1 0.38
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 0.6 2.6 ± 0.7 2.3 ± 0.6 0.18
Non-HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.9 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 0.7 2.9 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 0.17
Ascorbic acid (μmol/L) 43 ± 16 42 ± 13 44 ± 14 39 ± 12 0.55
  1. Study participants were Regular Force or Class A Reservists (n = 18). The data presented are for 24 h urinary biomarkers and blood biomarkers (collected the day after the experimental trial visits [sedentary (21 °C), cold (− 10 °C), hot (30 °C) and temperate (21 °C); humidity (~ 30–50%)] of CAF participants. 1Urinary and blood biomarker data were examined by Linear Mixed Models with Bonferroni adjustment. 2Strenuous physical activity consisted of infantry activities during the 8 h experimental treatments. Data are presented as the means ± standard deviations (SDs). a,bValues with different superscripts indicate statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.05); *P-value is the significance level for differences between the experimental treatments. 1Calculated eGFR as provided by Lifelabs and calculated as 186 × (Creatinine/88.4)-1.154 × (Age)-0.203 × (0.742 if female) × (1.210 if black)