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Table 2 Comparison of the effects of the different treatments on energy and nutrient intake by CAF personnel during the 8 h experimental treatment period. [Mean ± SD]

From: Comparison of dietary intakes of Canadian Armed Forces personnel consuming field rations in acute hot, cold, and temperate conditions with standardized infantry activities

Nutrient intake per 8 h 1 Average for experimental treatments Sedentary Strenuous physical activity3 P-value
Cold Hot Temperate
Energy (kcal) 1970 ± 718 1920 ± 640 1897 ± 793 2005 ± 795 2055 ± 680 0.56
Carbohydrates (g) 295 ± 119 279 ± 105 286 ± 129 298 ± 128 315 ± 118 0.47
Total fat (g) 61 ± 23 62 ± 23 58 ± 25 63 ± 26 61 ± 20 0.44
Saturated fat (g) 22 ± 9 22 ± 9 22 ± 10 22 ± 11 21 ± 8 0.89
Protein (g) 63 ± 23 64 ± 20 62 ± 28 64 ± 25 64 ± 20 0.76
Fiber (g) 19 ± 9 18 ± 7 19 ± 10 20 ± 9 19 ± 8 0.77
Total sugar (g) 139 ± 58 130 ± 45 132 ± 59 147 ± 59 149 ± 67 0.34
Sodium (mg) 3183 ± 1183 3022 ± 1111 3353 ± 1276 3005 ± 1063 3350 ± 1313 0.25
Potassium (mg) 527 ± 218 531 ± 208 474 ± 220 532 ± 200 571 ± 248 0.24
Vitamin A (μg) (RE) 263 ± 228 320 ± 266 213 ± 183 248 ± 221 271 ± 243 0.18
Calcium (mg) 526 ± 257 435 ± 238a 519 ± 283ab 620 ± 275b 530 ± 216ab 0.017*
Magnesium (mg) 118 ± 48 104 ± 43a 103 ± 53a 133 ± 41b 131 ± 50b 0.004*
Iron (mg) 21 ± 12 14 ± 6 14 ± 8 15 ± 7 15 ± 6 0.64
Phosphorus (mg) 267 ± 126 272 ± 126 239 ± 117 267 ± 129 289 ± 138 0.28
Zinc (mg) 3.5 ± 1.9 3.3 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 2.3 3.8 ± 2.2 3.7 ± 1.5 0.51
Vitamin B1 (mg) 0.31 ± 0.20 0.25 ± 0.15 0.30 ± 0.21 0.33 ± 0.22 0.37 ± 0.20 0.10
Vitamin B2 (mg) 1.1 ± 3.5 0.23 ± 0.14 1.9 ± 4.8 1.1 ± 3.5 1.2 ± 3.5 0.25
Vitamin B3 (mg) (NE) 7.8 ± 4.9 8.3 ± 4.6 6.5 ± 4.7 7.7 ± 4.6 8.8 ± 5.7 0.11
Vitamin B6 (mg) 0.50 ± 0.38 0.59 ± 0.42 0.36 ± 0.27 0.56 ± 0.4 0.47 ± 0.38 0.19
Vitamin B12 (μg) 0.92 ± 1.11 0.97 ± 1.32 0.64 ± 0.85 0.99 ± 1.08 1.08 ± 1.19 0.23
Folate (μg) (DFE) 93 ± 72 96 ± 68 74 ± 72 95 ± 71 107 ± 77 0.24
Vitamin C (mg)2 128 ± 128 88 ± 86 a 93 ± 123 a 147 ± 112 b 184 ± 164 b 0.02*
Caffeine (mg) 67 ± 79 55 ± 43 a 109 ± 100 b 35 ± 48 a 70 ± 95 ab 0.005*
Water (ml) 2678 ± 1502 1280 ± 536 a 1843 ± 1050 b 4148 ± 1086 c 3440 ± 1071 d < 0.001*
  1. Study participants were Regular Force or Class A Reservists (n = 18). The data presented are for 8 h of nutrient intake by participants overall and for each of the four randomized experimental treatment groups [sedentary (21 °C), cold (− 10 °C), hot (30 °C) and temperate (21 °C); humidity (~ 30–50%)]. Energy and nutrient intake data were collected using the measured food intake/food waste method, where all consumed and/or non/partially consumed food and beverage items were weighed and recorded for each participant. 1Energy and nutrient intake data were examined by Linear Mixed Models with Bonferroni adjustment. The consumption of 2Vitamin C-fortified drink crystal packets (average count) was as follows: 0.9 (sedentary), 0.9 (cold), 2.4 (hot), and 2.6 (temperate). 3Strenuous physical activity consisted of standardized infantry activities. Data are presented as the means ± standard deviations (SDs). a,b Values with different superscripts indicate statistically significant differences (*P ≤ 0.05). RE. Retinol Equivalents; DFE. Dietary Folate Equivalents; NE. Niacin Equivalents