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Table 1 Reported epidemiological studies of the relationship between CS and the risk of selected autoimmune diseases

From: Smoking under hypoxic conditions: a potent environmental risk factor for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases

Autoimmune disease Case-control studies
(No. of studies showing increased risk/total no. of studies)
Cohort studies
(No. of studies showing increased risk/total no. of studies)
Range of observed OR (RR) of developing diseases
RA 11/12 [24, 26,27,28, 31,32,33,34, 36,37,38,39] 4/4 [29, 30, 35, 40] 0.6-3.4
-Risk increases with increases in the duration and intensity of smoking
-Males are more prone
MS 1/3 [44,45,46] 2/2 [47, 48] 1.6-1.9
-Risk increases with increases in the intensity of smoking
SLE 3/8 [49,50,51,52,53,54,55,56] 0/2 [57, 58] 0.5-6.7
-Current smokers are mainly at risk
GD 8/8 [42, 59,60,61,62,63,64,65] 1/1 [66] 1.3-8.2
-Current smokers are at higher risk than former smokers
-Risk increases with increases in the intensity of smoking
-Females might be more prone
Primary biliary cirrhosis 2/2 [67, 68] - 1.6-3.5
  1. RA Rheumatoid arthritis, MS Multiple sclerosis, SLE Systemic lupus erythematosus, GD Graves’ disease, - No data