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Table 4 Adjusted logistic regression models predicting changes in supplement use [OR (95% CI)]

From: Self-reported dietary supplement use in deployed United States service members pre-deployment vs. during deployment, Afghanistan, 2013–2014

Predictor variables Decrease use Increase use
Sex (vs. female)
 Male 0.99 (0.46-2.14) 1.07 (0.63-1.83)
Age (vs. 34 or older)
 17-34 1.36 (0.62-3.00) 1.41 (0.84-2.40)
Race (vs. Caucasian)
 African American 1.19 (0.50-2.85) 1.10 (0.63-1.91)
 Hispanic 1.77 (0.76-4.13) 1.01 (0.59-1.74)
 Asian/other 1.02 (0.37-2.87) 0.68 (0.36-1.28)
Education (vs. high school diploma)
 Some college 0.93 (0.29-2.96) 0.86 (0.47-1.58)
 Bachelor’s degree 1.45 (0.40-5.17) 0.80 (0.39-1.63)
 Master’s/PhD 3.32 (1.17-9.40) 0.72 (0.26-1.99)
Branch (vs. Army)
 Air Force 0.80 (0.39-1.63) 1.75 (1.12-2.75)
 Navy, Marines, or other 5.16 (0.53-49.98) 0.59 (0.09-3.96)
Rank (vs. officer)
 Junior Enlisted 2.01 (0.68-5.93) 0.66 (0.33-1.32)
 Senior Enlisted 1.82 (0.69-4.83) 0.62 (0.32-1.20)
Deployment length (vs. 0-3 months)
 4-6 months 0.58 (0.26-1.29) 0.99 (0.63-1.56)
  > 6 months 0.77 (0.32-1.87) 0.86 (0.51-1.44)
Military Occupational Specialty (vs. combat arms)
 Combat support 0.66 (0.21-2.07) 1.59 (0.87-2.91)
 Combat service support 0.42 (0.13-1.30) 1.03 (0.56-1.90)
Requested education
 Before deployment 3.47 (1.66-7.26) 0.40 (0.23-0.68)
 During deployment 0.40 (0.15-1.07) 2.43 (1.42-4.16)
Received education
 Before deployment 3.28 (1.09-9.90) 0.16 (0.09-0.26)
 During deployment 0.58 (0.27-1.23) 1.95 (1.24-3.06)
Sufficient education received 0.58 (0.18-1.83) 0.78 (0.39-1.55)
Reasons for using supplements (during deployment)
 Boost energy 0.31 (0.13-0.69) 0.96 (0.64-1.46)
 Enhance performance 0.46 (0.19-1.16) 1.24 (0.79-1.93)
 Improve health 0.11 (0.05-0.24) 0.73 (0.48-1.11)
 Improve mental health 3.78 (1.00-14.32) 0.98 (0.54-1.80)
 Decrease fat 1.61 (0.57-4.55) 0.91 (0.54-1.52)
 Lose weight 0.18 (0.04-0.81) 1.47 (0.85-2.54)
 Gain muscle strength 0.36 (0.16-0.82) 1.81 (1.11-2.94)
 Gain muscle mass 0.33 (0.12-0.88) 1.34 (0.85-2.12)
 Meal replacement 0.28 (0.06-1.35) 1.92 (1.06-3.11)
  1. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used
  2. Participants who reported no supplement use before and during deployment (n = 595, 35% of total sample) and those who were missing at least one response on frequency of supplement use (n = 22, 1% of total sample) were excluded from the above analyses. Some demographic categories have been combined due to low counts