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Table 2 Epidemiological studies of microwaves

From: Recent advances in the effects of microwave radiation on brains

Item Reference Sample/Model Exposure condition Results
Occupational exposure Dasdag et al. 1992 Workers in TV transmitting station and medium wave broadcasting station Frequency ranging between 202 and 209, 694–701, 750–757, 774–781 and 1062 MHz Suffered from many illnesses
Dasdag et al. 1994 Workers in TV transmitting station and medium wave broadcasting station Frequency ranging between 202 and 209, 694–701, 750–757, 774–781 and 1062 MHz Showed significant psychiatric signs
Dasdag et al. 1999 Radio-link technicians and other workers, working years of subjects were 10 to 22 years 167 MHz, 420 MHz, 2 GHz and 6 GHZ with output powers of 200.0, 10.0, 1.5 and 4.0 watt, respectively Fatigue, headache, irritability, loss of appetite, sleepiness and memory difficulties were observed, but there were no pathological findings
Richter et al. 2002 5 young patients had brain tumors, 10 years of initial occupational exposures to radar GHz range; 10-300 W Incubation period shortened
Szmigielski et al. 1996 Military career personnel in Poland during a 15-year period (1971–1985) Pulse-modulated microwaves at 150–3500 MHz) 2–6 W/m2 Prevalence of brain cancer in each age group was higher
Mobile phone exposure Interphone study group. 2010 Regular mobile phone user Mobile phones No increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed. An increased isk of glioma at the highest exposure levels was observed, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation
Larjabaara et al. 2011 Regular mobile phone user Mobile phones Gliomas are not preferentially located in parts of the brain with the highest exposure
Hardell et al. 2011 2708 glioma and 2409 meningioma cases Mobile phones No increased risk
Carlberg et al. 2013 Brain tumor cases of both genders aged 18–75 years and diagnosed during 2007–2009 Mobile phones No conclusive evidence of an association between use of mobile phones and cordless phones and meningioma
Mortazavi et al. 2014 College students 900 MHz GSM mobile phone; 10 min Visual reaction time decreased
Koivisto et al. 2000 Healthy humans 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by cellular telephones Reaction time reduction
Preece et al. 2009 Humans 915 MHz Improvement of cognitive function
Koivisto et al. 2000 Healthy subjects 902 MHz electromagnetic field emitted by GSM phones Improvement of working memory
Edelstyn et al. 2002 Healthy subjects Electromagnetic field emitted by a 900 MHz mobile phone for 30 min Improvement of attentional capacity and processing speed
Smythe et al. 2003 Male and female subjects Mobile phones Spatial learning ability were improved in males but not in females
Effects on children Otto et al. 2007 Children Mobile phones Microwaves encountered in common life are most likely not a priority issue in children’s environmental health
Aydin et al. 2011 352 families of brain tumor patients in 7–19 years old adolescents and 646 matched controls Mobile phones Non-significantly increased OR value
Lee et al. 2001 Adolescents Electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones Mild facilitating effect on attention functions