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Table 1 Verified biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of trauma-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome

From: Biomarkers for patients with trauma associated acute respiratory distress syndrome

Injury pathway Biomarker Pattern in ARDS Clinical association Statistic description Reference
Endothelial injury Ang-2 elevated Predicting ARDS
mortality
AUC: 0.74 (95% CI, 0.62–0.84)
OR: 4.0 (95% CI, 1.6–10.2)
[18]
[19]
L-Selectin decreased Higher ARDS incidence Serum Concentration in ARDS: 262.7 g/L
(95% CI, 113.5–411.9 g/L)
[23]
Epithelial injury sRAGE elevated Early onset of ARDS
ARDS incidence
1773 (949–3227) vs. 1226 (773–1944)
Fold change: 3
[26]
[27]
SP-D decreased Higher mortality
Worse oxygenation
ARDS diagnosis
AUC: 0.69 (95% CI, 0.6, 0.76) [29]
[29]
[30]
CC16 elevated Lung contusion volume
ARDS mortality
r = 0.78, P < 0.0001 [31]
[33]
Coagulation Histones elevated ARDS incidence
SOFA scores
Fold change: 6.72
r = 0.55, P < 0.01
[40]
[40]
Inflammation mtDNA elevated SIRS
mortality
AUC: 0.725 (95% CI 0.613–0.837).
RR: 20.4 (95% CI, 1.3–318)
[43]
[45]
  1. Ang-2 Angiopoietin-2, ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, AUC area under the curve, CC16 Clara cell protein 16, mtDNA Mitochondrial DNAs, OR Odds ratio, RR Relative risks, SIRS Systemic inflammatory distress syndrome, sRAGE Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products, SP-D surfactant protein D, WMD weighted mean difference