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Fig. 1 | Military Medical Research

Fig. 1

From: Regulatory mechanisms, prophylaxis and treatment of vascular leakage following severe trauma and shock

Fig. 1

The mechanism of signaling transduction of vascular permeability. NO, Nitric Oxide; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor; TNF, Tumor necrosis factor; PKC, Protein kinase C; PDE, Phosphodiesterase; cGMP, Cyclic guanosine monophosphate; PKG, Protein kinase G; cAMP, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate; PKA, Protein Kinase A; PTK, Protein Tyrosine Kinase; RhoA, Ras homolog gene family member A; ROCK, Rho-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase; ROS, Reactive oxygen species; Rac, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1; PAK, p21-Activated Kinase; Cdc42, Cell division control protein 42; AR, Androgen receptor; MLC, Myosin light chain; MLCP, Myosin light chain phosphatase; MLCK, Myosin Light Chain Kinase; MAPK, Mitogen-activated protein kinase; TNFR1, Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1. a) Ca2+-PKC/CaM pathway, the vascular permeability is regulated in the tight junction by controlling the phosphorylation level of MLC by MLCK; b) cGMP-PKG pathway, the vascular permeability is regulated by AQP activity and tight junctions through controlling the phosphorylation level of MLC by MLCK; c) cAMP-PKA pathway, the vascular permeability is regulated by adjusting the activity of MLCP and AQP; d) PTK-MAPK pathway, the vascular permeability is affected by regulating the tight junctions by FAK; e) SGP pathway (small G protein), the vascular permeability is regulated by adjusting the tight junction, the adherens junctions and the vesicles by Rho and Rac GTPases and by CDC42

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