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Table 6 Associations of DAI scores with various independent variables [n (%)]

From: Effect of westernization on oral health among college students of Udaipur City, India

Variables DAI
No abnormality or minor malocclusion (No/slight need) Definite malocclusion (Elective treatment) Severe malocclusion (Highly desirable) Very severe or handicapping malocclusion (Mandatory) P value
Gender      0.12
 Male (n = 435) 314 (72.2) 54 (12.4) 53 (12.2) 14 (3.2)  
 Female (n = 365) 257 (70.4) 54 (14.8) 43 (11.8) 11 (3.0)
Socioeconomic status      0.69
 Low (n = 190) 134 (70.5) 28 (14.7) 20 (10.5) 8 (4.2)  
 Medium (n = 398) 283 (71.1) 49 (12.3) 53 (13.3) 13 (3.3)
 High (n = 212) 154 (72.6) 31 (14.6) 23 (10.8) 4 (1.9)
Adverse habits      0.46
 Present (n = 368) 259 (70.4) 53 (13.0) 48 (14.4) 8 (2.2)  
 Absent (n = 432) 312 (72.2) 60 (13.9) 43 (10) 17 (3.9)
Western scale
 Language preference
  Speak with mother or father in English (n = 72) 60 (83.3) 11 (15.2) 1 (1.3) 0 0.56
  Speak with siblings in English (n = 55) 45 (81.8) 3 (5.5) 4 (7.3) 3 (5.5) 0.23
  Speak with friends in English (n = 64) 51 (79.7) 13 (20.3) 0 0 0.45
 Media preference
  Watch English TV shows (n = 452) 316 (69.9) 51 (11.3) 72 (15.9) 13 (2.9) 0.16
  Watch English movies or films (n = 520) 358 (68.8) 59 (11.3) 87 (16.7) 16 (3.1) 0.12
  Listen to English music (n = 581) 387 (66.6) 93 (16.0) 79 (13.6) 22 (3.8) 0.09
 Preference for food
  Eat English food for lunch (n = 616) 438 (71.1) 83 (13.5) 85 (13.8 10 (1.8) 0.17
  Eat English food for a snack (n = 624) 431 (69.1) 88 (14.1) 81 (13.5) 24 (3.4) 0.05
  Eat English food for dessert (n = 561) 421 (75.0) 79 (8.2) 46 (14.1) 15 (2.7) 0.001*
 Other consumer goods
  Wear Western clothing (n = 297) 209 (70.4) 41 (13.8) 40 (13.5) 7 (2.4) 0.41
  Go to a Western coffee house (n = 544) 371 (68.2) 83 (15.3) 75 (13.8) 15 (2.8) 0.90
  Go to a Western-type shopping mall (n = 552) 408 (73.9) 78 (14.1) 52 (9.4) 14 (2.5) 0.76
  1. Test applied Chi-square test, *statistically significant at P < 0.05