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Table 4 Associations of dental caries status with various independent variables [n (%)]

From: Effect of westernization on oral health among college students of Udaipur City, India

Variables Dental caries status
None (0) Mild (0.1–2.6) Moderate (2.7–4.5) Severe (>4.5) P value
Gender
 Male (n = 435) 74 (17.01) 122 (28.1) 147 (33.9) 92 (21.2) 0.61
 Female (n = 365) 64 (17.53) 115 (31.6) 109 (29.9) 77 (21.2)
Socioeconomic status
 Low (n = 190) 26 (13.6) 47 (24.7) 64 (33.6) 53 (27.8) 0.11
 Medium (n = 398) 75 (18.8) 124 (31.2) 126 (31.6) 73 (18.3)
 High (n = 212) 36 (17.1) 66 (31.3) 66 (31.3) 43 (20.4)
Adverse habits
 Present (n = 368) 65 (17.7) 143 (39.0) 82 (22.3) 77 (21.0) 0.001*
 Absent (n = 432) 71 (16.5) 94 (21.8) 174 (40.4) 92 (21.3)
Western scale
 Language preference
  Speak with mother or father in English (n = 72) 5 (6.9) 30 (41.7) 26 (36.1) 11 (15.3) 0.34
  Speak with siblings in English (n = 55) 0 22 (40.0) 26 (47.3) 7 (12.7) 0.12
  Speak with friends in English (n = 63) 11 (17.5) 31 (49.2) 7 (11.1) 14 (22.2) 0.21
 Media preference
  Watch English TV shows (n = 451) 40 (8.9) 156 (34.6) 163 (36.1) 92 (20.4) 0.43
  Watch English movies or films (n = 519) 74 (14.3) 178 (34.3) 177 (34.1) 90 (17.3) 0.01*
  Listen to English music (n = 579) 84 (14.5) 214 (37.0) 167 (28.8) 114 (19.7) 0.02*
 Preference for food
  Eat English food for lunch (n = 614) 100 (16.3) 214 (34.9) 165 (26.9) 135 (22.0) 0.001*
  Eat English food for a snack (n = 623) 104 (16.7) 194 (31.1) 190 (30.5) 135 (21.7) 0.001*
  Eat English food for dessert (561) 95 (16.9) 181 (32.3) 177 (31.6) 108 (19.3) 0.001*
 Other consumer goods
  Wear Western clothing (n = 296) 52 (17.6) 103 (34.8) 84 (28.4) 57 (19.3) 0.07
  Go to a Western coffee house (n = 542) 82 (15.1) 160 (29.5) 167 (30.8) 133 (24.5) 0.003*
  Go to a Western-type shopping mall (n = 551) 98 (17.8) 199 (36.1) 163 (29.6) 91 (16.5) 0.17
  1. Chi-square test, * statistically significant at P < 0.05