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Table 1 Summary of studies evaluating the association of bacterial vaginosis with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

From: Bacterial vaginosis: a synthesis of the literature on etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with chlamydia and gonorrhea infections

Reference Location Study design Population Findings
Joesoef, et al. [85] Indonesia Cross-sectional Pregnant women Women with BV had more than a 2-fold increase in chlamydia and a 6-fold increase in gonorrhea
Keane, et al. [86] London, UK Case-control Women attending genitourinary medicine clinics Association between chlamydia and BV (odds ratio = 5.4)
Nilsson, et al. [87] Stockholm, Sweden Cross-sectional Women attending family planning and youth clinics BV is associated with sexual behavior risk factors similar to those associated with Chlamydia
Martin, et al. [88] Mobasa, Kenya Cohort Sex workers Absence of vaginal lactobacilli increased the risk of gonorrhea (hazard ratio = 1.7)
Wiesenfeld, et al. [89] Pennsylvania, US Cross-sectional Non-pregnant women who sought care at STD clinics Women with BV were more likely to test positive for N. gonorrhoeae (odds ratio = − 4.1 or C. trachomatis (OR = 3.4)
Ness, et al. [90] Pennsylvania, Colorado, California, Alabama, South Carolina, US Cohort Women visiting planning clinics, university health clinics, gynecology clinics, and STD units Baseline BV prevalence was associated with gonococcal or chlamydial genital infection (OR = 2.8)
Allsworth, et al. [91] Rhode Island, US Cohort Women attending primary care, gynecology, and family planning clinics Severity of BV (Nugent score >8) was associated with the incident of a STI (C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, or pelvic inflammatory disease)
Brotman, et al. [92] Alabama, US Cohort Non-pregnant women visiting clinics for routine care BV at the prior visit increased the risk of a subsequent C. trachomatis (hazard ratio = 1.9) and N. gonorrhoeae (hazard ratio = 1.8) infection
Gallo, et al. [93] Alabama, US Cohort Women attending public STD clinics BV increased the risk of gonorrhea/chlamydia (pairwise odds ratio = 1.6) and gonorrhea/chlamydia also increased the risk of BV (pairwise odds ratio = 2.4)