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Table 2 Vaccinations and military contributions[8589]

From: Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: challenges and opportunities for militaries

Vaccine Year initiated Military role
Smallpox 1777 Used by the Continental Army in 1777; Used by Prussian Army during the Franco-Prussian War in 1870
Yellow fever 1900 Demonstration of etiological agent and vector
Typhoid fever 1909 British Army used early forms during the Anglo-Boer War; US Military developed killed typhoid vaccine for US Army and Navy personnel
Tetanus 1940 Used by the US Army and Navy from 1940; Used by the Luftwaffe in World War II
Cholera 1940, 1980s Injectable whole cell vaccines given to alert US Military Units until 1973
Hepatitis A 1945, 1985 US Military developed immunoglobulins and used in Korea and Vietnam in the 1960s; US Military supported safety, immunogenicity and efficacy studies
Pneumococcus 1945 US Military tested first multivalent polysaccharide vaccine
Diphtheria 1950s US Military sponsored reduced dose formulation
Anthrax 1950s Early anthrax vaccines were developed by Dr George Wright of the U.S. Chemical Corps and his colleagues, and were licensed in 1970.
Adenovirus 1952-1969 US Military developed killed bivalent and oral attenuated vaccine
Influenza 1957 US Military developed first iterations of influenza vaccines and conducted trials among US service members
Japanese Encephalitis 1950s, 1980s US Military performed vaccination efforts in World War II and later supported inactivated vaccine studies
Plague 1960s US personnel in Vietnam and Southern Vietnam soldiers vaccinated in the 1960s
Meningococcus 1968 US Military developed polysaccharide vaccine and supported clinical trials; Adopted by the Israeli Army in 1994
Rubella 1972 US Military developed technique for isolating virus used to develop the vaccine
Measles 1980 US Military provided funding for development of an attenuated vaccine