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Table 3 Non-invasive EEG-based brain-computer interfaces in patients with disorders of consciousness – the review of reported studies

From: Non-invasive EEG-based brain-computer interfaces in patients with disorders of consciousness

Country – references, study group Results Remarks
Belgium – Lule et al. [14], N = 34 Four training trials and 10–12 questions “yes-no” showed functional communication in patients with locked-in syndrome and other patients with altered states of consciousness BCI approaches have to be simplified to increase their sensitivity
UK - Kübler and Birbaumer [17], N = 35 Basic communication (yes/no) was restored in locked-in patients, bit not in any of the CLIS patients BCIs application in CLIS patients still remains an open scientific problem
Italy – Cavinato et al. [20], N = 34 P300 was the only factor contributing to prediction of conscious recovery in patients in post-traumatic VS  
Italy - Risetti et al. [24], N = 11 High value of ERPs monitoring in DOC patients aiming at investigation of preserved conscious cognitive function  
Belgium, Lugo et al. [25], N = 6 P300 response to vibrotactile stimulation in patients with LIS.  
Germany, Steppacher et al. [28], N = 92 Significant relationship between N400 presence and subsequent recovery  
Austria, Pokorny et al. [30], N = 22 P300 accuracies were were insufficient for communication purposes in MCS patients Further investigations are needed
UK, Chennu et al. [32], N = 29 Early, bottom-up P3a and the late, top-down P3b components in response to a pair of word stimuli may be regarded as signs of preserved attention Further investigations are needed
Canada, Cruse et al. [41] N20 and N35 somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) show significant predictive value in patiens in coma Research on etiology of the predictive power of these SSEP measures is needed